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note: the medieval idea of the Great Chain of Being was an ontological one, but we cover it in Indexing Schemes because in content, if not in goal, it was similar to modern indexing schemes.

in this chapter we ignore many important distinctions between ontologies, instead only concentrating on the list of 'top level nodes' in (upper) ontologies

in this chapter, so far, we have been interested only in categorizations of entities/things/objects, rather than of relations. TODO: list most common/important/fundamental relations/categories of relations.

todo [1] (if any)


"The UMBEL Vocabulary defines three classes: RefConcept?, SuperType?, and Qualifier; and 38 properties: correspondsTo, isAbout, isRelatedTo, relatesToXXX (31 variants), isLike, hasMapping, hasCharacteristic and isCharacteristicOf." --

"Reference Concepts are a distinct subset of the more broadly understood concept such as used in the SKOS RDFS controlled vocabulary or formal concept analysis or the very general or abstract concepts common to some upper ontologies. Reference Concepts are selected for their use as concrete, subject-related or commonly used notions for describing tangible ideas and referents in human experience and language. Reference Concepts are classes, the members of which are nameable instances or named entities, which by definition are held as distinct from these concepts. The UMBEL ontology is a coherently organized structure (or reference "backbone") of these Reference Concepts.

SuperTypes? are a collection of (mostly) similar Reference Concepts. Most of the SuperType? classes have been designed to be (mostly) disjoint from the other SuperType? classes. SuperTypes? thus provide a higher-level of clustering and organization of Reference Concepts for use in user interfaces and for reasoning purposes.

The Qualifier class is a set of descriptions that indicate the method used in order to establish an isAbout or correspondsTo relationship between an UMBEL reference concept (RC) and an external entity. This description should be complete enough to aid understanding of the nature and reliability of the "aboutness" assertion and to be usable for filtering or user interface information. The descriptions may be literal strings or may refer to literal numeric values resulting from an automated alignment technique. " --

umbel 32 'SuperType?'s in 9 clusters ('dimensions'):

Note the last two dimensions (and four SuperTypes?) are by definition non-disjoint.


root node: entity

BFO from

root node 'Entity'



root node: entity types

commonly used types:

(only root node and level 2 shown)

root node Thing.

DOLCE fig. 1


root node: thing subroot node: particular

bigger (also has eg Fact):

^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Abstract ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^AbstractQuality? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^AbstractRegion? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Accomplishment ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Achievement ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^AgentivePhysicalObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^AmountOfMatter? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^ArbitrarySum? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Endurant ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Entity ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Event ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Fact ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Feature ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^MentalObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^NonAgentivePhysicalObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^NonPhysicalEndurant? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^NonPhysicalObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Perdurant ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^PhysicalEndurant? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^PhysicalObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^PhysicalQuality? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^PhysicalRegion? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Process ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Quality ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Region ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Set ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^SocialAgent? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^SocialObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Society ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^SpaceRegion? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^SpatialLocation? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Stative ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^TemporalLocation? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^TemporalQuality? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^TemporalRegion? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^TimeInterval? ^Process <>Aggregate ^ProcessStep?




maybe too abstract for our purposes here? but pretty interesting see also

UFO is organized into three layers, UFO-A at the bottom, then UFO-B and then UFO-C on top.


defn of type: "an entity that has an extension (...a set of entities that are instances of it) and an intension, (...applicability criterion for determining if an entity is an instance of it); and which is captured by means of an axiomatic specification, that is, a set of axioms that may involve a number of other entity types representing its essential features. A type is a space-time independent pattern of features, which can be realized in a number of different individuals". My comment: i guess they want types to be crisp/discrete/unambiguous, but my feeling is that cognitive psychology and linguistics have shown that humans don't always use axiomatic specifications to define categories, which means that a number of common categories would not be 'types' under this definition; i would prefer to drop the 'captured by axiomatic spec' part and to allow types defined by mixtures of definitions and prototype (see ); and perhaps to have a subtype of 'type' which is a 'clearly-defined-type' which has an axiomatic spec. Note that for a type which is not a clearly-defined-type there may be 'edge cases' where different speakers disagree (or don't care) whether or not certain entities fall within the extension of the type.

types of types:

kinds of individuals:

my opinion: the perdurant/endurant distinction seems somewhat subjective or at least context-dependent; at one time, one might view a person as an endurant, but then later in the same conversation one might view the same person as a process existing in time, a perdurant, similar to a storm. Similarly, one might take an endurant perspective on a storm. Perhaps this is only similar to the way that, in Aristotle's Categories, a particular person is a substance, which is distinct from a quality like a color, but one could grammatically and conceptually think of a color as the subject of a sentence, and ascribe predicates to it; in Aristotle, a color is not a substance just because it can be predicated upon subjects, but this does not imply that it cannot itself be a subject. Contrast to the distinction between an atomic event and a person; these things are objectively different, because a person exists (or at least, might exist) in more than one point in time.


non-primitive relations:






<>BinaryRelation? <>is <>FixedArityRelation? <>FixedArityRelation? <>is <>Relation <>Relation <>is <> <>Relation <>is <>Relation <>Relation <>is ^MathematicalObject? <>Role <>is <>Relation <>Role <>is <>Relation ^AttributeValue? <>is ^IntangibleIndividual? ^BinaryPredicate? <>is ^Predicate ^BinaryRolePredicate? <>is ^BinaryPredicate? ^BinaryRolePredicate? <>is ^ObjectPredicate? ^BinaryRolePredicate? <>is ^Role ^Collection <>is ^Set ^Collection <>is ^SetOrCollection? ^CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject? <>is ^PartiallyIntangibleIndividual? ^CompositeTangibleAndIntangibleObject? <>is ^PartiallyTangible? ^Configuration <>is ^SpatialThingLocalized? ^Configuration <>is ^StaticSituation? ^Event <>is ^ActivityConcept? ^Event <>is ^Perdurant ^Event <>is ^SituationTemporal? ^Event <>is ^TimeConcept? ^FunctionalDenotational? <>is ^FunctionalRelation? ^Individual <>is ^RealityConcept? ^Individual <>is ^Thing ^Intangible <>is ^PartiallyIntangible? ^IntangibleExistingThing? <>is ^IntangibleIndividual? ^IntangibleExistingThing? <>is ^SomethingExisting? ^IntangibleIndividual? <>is ^Intangible ^IntangibleIndividual? <>is ^PartiallyIntangibleIndividual? ^LogicalConnective? <>is ^TruthFunction? ^MathematicalObject? <>is ^IntangibleIndividual? ^MathematicalObject? <>is ^MathematicalThing? ^MathematicalOrComputationalThing? <>is ^PartiallyIntangible? ^MathematicalThing? <>is ^MathematicalOrComputationalThing? ^ObjectPredicate? <>is ^Predicate ^PartiallyIntangible? <>is ^Thing ^PartiallyIntangibleIndividual? <>is ^PartiallyIntangible? ^PartiallyTangible? <>is ^SomethingExisting? ^PartiallyTangible? <>is ^SpatialThingLocalized? ^PhysicalEvent? <>is ^Event ^PhysicalEvent? <>is ^SpatialThingLocalized? ^Predicate <>is ^TruthFunction? ^Quantifier <>is ^ScopingRelation? ^Quantifier <>is ^TruthFunction? ^Role <>is ^Class ^Role <>is ^ModellingConcept? ^Role <>is ^Predicate ^Role <>is ^Property ^ScopingRelation? <>is ^Relation ^SetMathematical? <>is ^SetOrCollection? ^SetOrCollection? <>is ^MathematicalThing? ^Situation <>is ^IntangibleIndividual? ^SituationTemporal? <>is ^Situation ^SomethingExisting? <>is ^TemporalThing? ^SpatialThing? <>is ^Individual ^SpatialThingLocalized? <>is ^SpatialThing? ^StaticSituation? <>is ^SituationTemporal? ^TangibleThing? <>is ^PartiallyTangible? ^TemporalThing? <>is ^Individual ^TimeInterval? <>is ^TemporalThing? ^TimeInterval? <>is ^IntangibleIndividual? ^TimeInterval? <>is ^TemporalRegion? ^TruthFunction? <>is ^Relation ^UpperOntology? <>is ^Ontology

DOLCE+DnS Ultralite (DLL)


DOLCE-Lite and GFO

Table 4: Equivalence alignments for classes between DOLCE-Lite and GFO ontologies; the alignments num- bered in bold font can also be mapped. DOLCE-Lite GFO 1. particular Individual 2. endurant Presential 3. physical-endurant Discrete presential 4. physical-object Material object 5. amount-of-matter Amount of substrate 6. perdurant Occurrent 7. process Process 8. state State 9. abstract Abstract 10. set Set 11. quality Property 12. quale Property value 13. quality-space Value space 14. time-interval Chronoid 15. space-region Spatial Region 16. temporal-region Temporal Region

Table 5: Common alignments between DOLCE-Lite, BFO and GFO. DOLCE-Lite BFORO GFO Class 1. endurant Independent Continuant Presential 2. physical-object Object Material object 3. perdurant Occurrent Occurrent 4. process Process Process 5. quality Quality Property 6. space-region SpatialRegion? Spatial region 7. temporal- region Temporal- Region Temporal region

Table 8: False positives caused by syntactic matching gen- erated by the alignment tools; the terms in italics represent the strings that are common between aligned entities. DOLCE-Lite BFO physical- region ConnectedSpatio? Temporal Region non-physical- object Object region SpatioTemporal? Region BFO GFO Independent Continuant Independent Sit e Sit uoid Continu ant Continu ous GFO DOLCE-Lite has sequence constituent generic- constituent has- part part Space quality- spac

ontology4 merge

Subject Name Object ^O4Ontology <>OC_Abstract ^Abstract >NSM <>OC_Activity ^ActionsAndEvents? ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Actuality ^Actuality ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Agent ^Agent ^Bfo <>OC_Aggregate <>Aggregate ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Attribute ^Attribute ^CycOntology? <>OC_AttributeValue? ^AttributeValue? ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Class ^Class ^Gfo <>OC_Configuration ^Configuration ^Gfo <>OC_Continuant ^PresentialOrPersistant? ^O4Ontology <>OC_DataType? ^DataType? >NSM <>OC_Death ^Death >NSM <>OC_Descriptor ^Descriptor >NSM <>OC_Determiner ^Determiner ^O4Ontology <>OC_Entity ^Entity ^Gfo <>OC_Event ^DiscreteProcess? >NSM <>OC_Existence ^Existence ^Bfo <>OC_Function °Function ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Independent ^Independent ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Instance ^Physical >NSM <>OC_IntensifierConcept? ^IntensifierConcept? ^O4Ontology <>OC_Intention ^Intention ^Bfo <>OC_Intervall ^Intervall >NSM <>OC_Life ^Life ^Gfo <>OC_Location ^Region >NSM <>OC_LogicalConcept? ^LogicalConcept? >NSM <>OC_MentalPredicate? ^MentalPredicate? ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Object ^Object ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Occurrent ^Perdurant ^Bfo <>OC_Part ^Part ^O4Ontology <>OC_Participation <>Participation ^O4Ontology <>OC_Passivity °Passivity ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Period ^TimeInterval? ^O4Ontology <>OC_Person ^Person ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Physical ^Physical >NSM <>OC_Possession ^Possession ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Process ^Process ^SowaOntology? <>OC_ProcessInstance? >°ProcessInstance ^Gfo <>OC_Proposition ^Instantiation >NSM <>OC_Quality ^Evaluator ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Quantity ^Quantity >NSM <>OC_Relation ^RelationalSubstantive? ^O4Ontology <>OC_Role <>Role ^O4Ontology <>OC_Script ^Script >NSM <>OC_SimilarityConcept? ^SimilarityConcept? ^CycOntology? <>OC_Situation ^Situation ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Space ^Region >NSM <>OC_Specification ^Specification >NSM <>OC_SpeechConcept? ^SpeechConcept? ^Gfo <>OC_State ^State ^O4Ontology <>OC_Subject ^Subject ^O4Ontology <>OC_Taxoverby ° >NSM <>OC_Time ^Time

Subject Name Object Value ^AristotleOntology? <>Aggregate ^Agere ^AristotleOntology? <>Aggregate ^Habitus ^AristotleOntology? <>Aggregate ^Pati ^AristotleOntology? <>Aggregate ^Qualitas ^AristotleOntology? <>Aggregate ^Quando ^AristotleOntology? <>Aggregate ^Quantitas ^AristotleOntology? <>Aggregate ^Quiditas ^AristotleOntology? <>Aggregate ^Relativum ^AristotleOntology? <>Aggregate ^Situ ^AristotleOntology? <>Aggregate ^Ubi ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Abstract ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^AbstractQuality? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^AbstractRegion? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Accomplishment ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Achievement ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^AgentivePhysicalObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^AmountOfMatter? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^ArbitrarySum? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Endurant ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Entity ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Event ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Fact ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Feature ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^MentalObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^NonAgentivePhysicalObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^NonPhysicalEndurant? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^NonPhysicalObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Perdurant ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^PhysicalEndurant? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^PhysicalObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^PhysicalQuality? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^PhysicalRegion? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Process ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Quality ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Region ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Set ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^SocialAgent? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^SocialObject? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Society ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^SpaceRegion? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^SpatialLocation? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^Stative ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^TemporalLocation? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^TemporalQuality? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^TemporalRegion? ^DolceOntology? <>Aggregate ^TimeInterval? ^GFO <>GfoSubCategory? ^AbstractIndividual? ^GFO <>GfoSubCategory? ^Category ^GFO <>GfoSubCategory? ^ConcreteIndividual? ^GFO <>GfoSubCategory? ^Entity ^GFO <>GfoSubCategory? ^Individual ^GFO <>GfoSubCategory? ^Item ^GFO <>GfoSubCategory? ^Layer ^GFO <>GfoSubCategory? ^Set ^GFO <>GfoSubCategory? ^Space-Time-Entity ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate <>Relation ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate >Instance ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate >°ProcessInstance ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate ^Class ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate ^Continuant ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate ^Occurrent ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate ^Property ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate ^Universal ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate _PropertyInstance? ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate °Activity ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate °Passivity ^O4TopOntology? <>Aggregate °Process ^ <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^DataType? ^ <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^Thing ^T <>SowaSubCategory? ^Abstract ^T <>SowaSubCategory? ^Continuant ^T <>SowaSubCategory? ^Independent ^T <>SowaSubCategory? ^Mediating ^T <>SowaSubCategory? ^Occurrent ^T <>SowaSubCategory? ^Physical ^T <>SowaSubCategory? ^Relative ^Abstract <>SowaSubCategory? ^Intention ^Abstract <>SowaSubCategory? ^Form ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^BusinessEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^ChildrensEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^ComedyEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^DanceEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^EducationEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^Festival ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^FoodEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^LiteraryEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^MusicEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^SaleEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^SocialEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^SportsEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^TheaterEvent? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^UserInteraction? ^Event <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^VisualArtsEvent? ^Process <>Aggregate ^ProcessStep? ^AbstractIndividual? <>GfoSubCategory? ^Number ^Category <>GfoSubCategory? ^SymbolicStructure? ^Category <>GfoSubCategory? ^Concept ^Category <>GfoSubCategory? ^ImmanentUniversal? ^Category <>SubCategory? ^Life ^ConcreteIndividual? <>GfoSubCategory? >>Relator ^ConcreteIndividual? <>GfoSubCategory? ^PropertyValue? ^ConcreteIndividual? <>GfoSubCategory? ^Property ^ConcreteIndividual? <>GfoSubCategory? °Occurrent ^ConcreteIndividual? <>GfoSubCategory? ^Presential ^Layer <>GfoSubCategory? ^Stratum ^Space-Time-Entity <>GfoSubCategory? ^SpatialBoundary? ^Space-Time-Entity <>GfoSubCategory? ^Region ^Space-Time-Entity <>GfoSubCategory? ^TimeBoundary? ^Space-Time-Entity <>GfoSubCategory? ^Chronoid <>Relation <>Aggregate ^RepresentationConcept? ^Class <>SubCategory? ^Order ^Class <>Aggregate °Method ^Class <>Aggregate ^Attribute ^Continuant <>Aggregate <>followed-by ^Continuant <>Aggregate <>preceded-by ^Continuant <>Aggregate <>transformation-from ^Continuant <>Aggregate <>derives-from ^Continuant <>Aggregate <>adjacent-to ^Continuant <>Aggregate <>contained-in ^Continuant <>Aggregate <>located-in ^Continuant <>SowaSubCategory? ^Reason ^Continuant <>SowaSubCategory? ^Structure ^Continuant <>SowaSubCategory? ^Description ^Continuant <>SowaSubCategory? ^Juncture ^Continuant <>SowaSubCategory? ^Schema ^Continuant <>SowaSubCategory? ^Object ^Occurrent <>SowaSubCategory? ^Purpose ^Occurrent <>SowaSubCategory? ^Situation ^Occurrent <>SowaSubCategory? ^History ^Occurrent <>SowaSubCategory? ^Participation ^Occurrent <>SowaSubCategory? ^Script ^Occurrent <>SowaSubCategory? °Process °Process <>GfoSubCategory? °Configuroid °Process <>GfoSubCategory? °StateProcess °Process <>GfoSubCategory? °DiscreteProcess °Process <>GfoSubCategory? °ContinuousProcess °Process <>SowaSubCategory? ^_ ^Thing <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^CreativeWork? ^Thing <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^Event ^Thing <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^Intangible ^Thing <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^MedicalEntity? ^Thing <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^Organization ^Thing <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^Person ^Thing <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^Place ^Thing <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^Product ^Thing <>SchemaOrgSubCategory? ^Article ^Independent <>SowaSubCategory? ^Form ^Independent <>SowaSubCategory? ^Actuality ^Mediating <>SowaSubCategory? ^Intention ^Mediating <>SowaSubCategory? ^Nexus ^Physical <>SowaSubCategory? ^Nexus ^Physical <>SowaSubCategory? ^Prehension ^Physical <>SowaSubCategory? ^Actuality ^Relative <>SowaSubCategory? ^Proposition ^Relative <>SowaSubCategory? ^Prehension

<>Aggregate <>is <>Form <>Aggregate <>is <>Relation <>Participation <>is <>ProcessualRole? <>Participation <>is <>Role <>Relation <>is <> <>Relation <>is <>Relation <>Relation <>is ^MathematicalObject? <>Role <>is <>Relation >NSM <>OC_Activity ^ActionsAndEvents? >NSM <>OC_Class ^Substantive >NSM <>OC_Death ^Death >NSM <>OC_Descriptor ^Descriptor >NSM <>OC_Determiner ^Determiner >NSM <>OC_Existence ^Existence >NSM <>OC_Instance ^Existence >NSM <>OC_IntensifierConcept? ^IntensifierConcept? >NSM <>OC_Life ^Life >NSM <>OC_Location ^Location >NSM <>OC_LogicalConcept? ^LogicalConcept? >NSM <>OC_MentalPredicate? ^MentalPredicate? >NSM <>OC_Possession ^Possession >NSM <>OC_Quality ^Evaluator >NSM <>OC_Quantity ^Quantity >NSM <>OC_Relation ^RelationalSubstantive? >NSM <>OC_SimilarityConcept? ^SimilarityConcept? >NSM <>OC_Space ^Space >NSM <>OC_Specification ^Specification >NSM <>OC_SpeechConcept? ^SpeechConcept? >NSM <>OC_Time ^Time ^Abstract <>is ^Entity ^Accomplishment <>is ^Event ^Agere <>is °Activity ^AmountOfMatter? <>is ^PhysicalEndurant? ^AristotleOntology? <>OC_Activity ^Agere ^AristotleOntology? <>OC_Entity ^Quiditas ^AristotleOntology? <>OC_Location ^Ubi ^AristotleOntology? <>OC_Passivity ^Pati ^AristotleOntology? <>OC_Period ^Quando ^AristotleOntology? <>OC_Quality ^Qualitas ^AristotleOntology? <>OC_Quantity ^Quantitas ^AristotleOntology? <>OC_Relation ^Relativum ^Attribute <>is ^Class ^Attribute <>is ^DatabaseConcept? ^AttributeValue? <>is ^IntangibleIndividual? ^Bfo <>OC_Aggregate <>Aggregate ^Bfo <>OC_Continuant ^Continuant ^Bfo <>OC_Entity ^Entity ^Bfo <>OC_Function °Function ^Bfo <>OC_Intervall ^Intervall ^Bfo <>OC_Object ^Object ^Bfo <>OC_Occurrent ^Occurrent ^Bfo <>OC_Part ^Part ^Bfo <>OC_Quality ^Quality ^Bfo <>OC_Role ^Role ^Category <>is ^non-sortal ^Class <>is ^Class ^Configuration <>is ^SpatialThingLocalized? ^Configuration <>is ^StaticSituation? ^Continuant <>is ^Class ^Continuant <>is ^RealityConcept? ^Continuant <>is ^TimeConcept? ^CycOntology? <>OC_AttributeValue? ^AttributeValue? ^CycOntology? <>OC_Configuration ^Configuration ^CycOntology? <>OC_Entity ^Thing ^CycOntology? <>OC_Event ^Event ^CycOntology? <>OC_Relation <>Relation ^CycOntology? <>OC_Role <>Role ^CycOntology? <>OC_Situation ^Situation ^DataType? <>is ^DatabaseConcept? ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Activity ^Accomplishment ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Attribute ^PhysicalQuality? ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Attribute ^Quality ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Entity ^Entity ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Event ^Event ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Instance ^Particular ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Location ^SpacialLocation? ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Occurrent ^Perdurant ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Period ^TimeInterval? ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Person ^SocialAgent? ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Process ^Process ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Quality ^Quality ^DolceOntology? <>OC_Quantity ^AmountOfMatter? ^Entity <>is ^Class ^Event <>is ^ActivityConcept? ^Event <>is ^Perdurant ^Event <>is ^SituationTemporal? ^Event <>is ^TimeConcept? ^Gfo <>OC_Actuality ^MatStructureOrProcess? ^Gfo <>OC_Attribute ^Property ^Gfo <>OC_AttributeValue? ^PropertyValue? ^Gfo <>OC_Class ^Category ^Gfo <>OC_Configuration ^Configuration ^Gfo <>OC_Continuant ^PresentialOrPersistant? ^Gfo <>OC_Event ^DiscreteProcess? ^Gfo <>OC_Instance ^Individual ^Gfo <>OC_Location ^Region ^Gfo <>OC_Occurrent ^Occurent ^Gfo <>OC_Process ^Process ^Gfo <>OC_Proposition ^Instantiation ^Gfo <>OC_Relation ^Mediating ^Gfo <>OC_Script >ProcessCategory? ^Gfo <>OC_Situation ^MaterialStructure? ^Gfo <>OC_State ^State ^Individual <>is ^RealityConcept? ^Individual <>is ^Thing ^Intervall <>is ^Class ^Location <>is ^LocationConcept? ^O4Ontology <>OC_Abstract ^Abstract ^O4Ontology <>OC_Activity °Activity ^O4Ontology <>OC_Actuality ^Actuality ^O4Ontology <>OC_Aggregate <>Aggregate ^O4Ontology <>OC_Attribute ^Attribute ^O4Ontology <>OC_AttributeValue? ^AttributeValue? ^O4Ontology <>OC_Class ^Class ^O4Ontology <>OC_Configuration ^Configuration ^O4Ontology <>OC_Continuant ^Continuant ^O4Ontology <>OC_DataType? ^DataType? ^O4Ontology <>OC_Entity ^Entity ^O4Ontology <>OC_Event ^Event ^O4Ontology <>OC_Function °Function ^O4Ontology <>OC_Instance >Instance ^O4Ontology <>OC_Intention ^Intention ^O4Ontology <>OC_Location ^Location ^O4Ontology <>OC_Object ^Object ^O4Ontology <>OC_Occurrent ^Occurent ^O4Ontology <>OC_Part ^Part ^O4Ontology <>OC_Participation <>Participation ^O4Ontology <>OC_Passivity °Passivity ^O4Ontology <>OC_Period ^Period ^O4Ontology <>OC_Person ^Person ^O4Ontology <>OC_Possession <>Possession ^O4Ontology <>OC_Process °Process ^O4Ontology <>OC_Proposition ^Proposition ^O4Ontology <>OC_Quality ^Quality ^O4Ontology <>OC_Quantity ^Quantity ^O4Ontology <>OC_Relation <>Relation ^O4Ontology <>OC_Role <>Role ^O4Ontology <>OC_Script ^Script ^O4Ontology <>OC_Situation ^Situation ^O4Ontology <>OC_Space ^Space ^O4Ontology <>OC_State ^State ^O4Ontology <>OC_Subject ^Subject ^O4Ontology <>OC_Taxoverby ° ^O4Ontology <>OC_Time ^Time ^Object <>is ^Class ^Object <>is ^InstanceConcept? ^Occurrent <>is ^Class ^Occurrent <>is ^InstanceConcept? ^Part <>is ^Class ^Pati <>is °Passivity ^Perdurant <>is ^Entity ^Period <>is ^TimeType? ^Person <>is ^Class ^PhysicalQuality? <>is ^Quality ^Process <>is ^Class ^Process <>is ^ProcessConcept? ^Process <>is ^ProgrammingConcept? ^Process <>is ^Stative ^Process <>is ^TimeConcept? ^Property <>is ^Class ^Property <>is ^PossessionConcept? ^Qualitas <>is ^QualityConcept? ^Quality <>is ^Class ^Quality <>is ^Entity ^Quando <>is ^TimeConcept? ^Quantitas <>is ^QuantityConcept? ^Quiditas <>is ^PerceptionConcept? ^Region <>is ^Abstract ^Region <>is ^Class ^Relativum <>is ^RelationConcept? ^Role <>is ^Class ^Role <>is ^ModellingConcept? ^Role <>is ^Predicate ^Role <>is ^Property ^Situation <>is ^IntangibleIndividual? ^SocialAgent? <>is ^AgentiveSocialObject? ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Abstract ^Abstract ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Actuality ^Actuality ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Class ^Abstract ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Continuant ^Continuant ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Independent ^Independent ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Instance ^Physical ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Intention ^Intention ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Occurrent ^Occurent ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Physical ^Physical ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Process ^Process ^SowaOntology? <>OC_ProcessInstance? >°ProcessInstance ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Proposition ^Proposition ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Relation ^Nexus ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Script ^Script ^SowaOntology? <>OC_Situation ^Situation ^SpacialLocation? <>is ^PhysicalQuality? ^State <>is ^Stative ^Subject <>is ^InstanceConcept? ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Abstract ^Abstract ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Agent ^Agent ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Attribute ^Attribute ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Class ^Class ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Entity ^Entity ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Instance ^Physical ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Object ^Object ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Period ^TimeInterval? ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Process ^Process ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Quantity ^Quantity ^SumoOntology? <>OC_Space ^Region ^Time <>is ^PhysicalQuantity? ^TimeInterval? <>is ^IntangibleIndividual? ^TimeInterval? <>is ^TemporalRegion? ^TimeInterval? <>is ^TemporalThing? ^Ubi <>is ^LocationConcept? ° <>is ^ProcessConcept? °Activity <>is ° °Passivity <>is ° °Process <>is °Activity

aristotle's categories

Note that many philosophers, in their discussion of 'categories', considered both topics that we would consider 'ontological' as well as topics that we would consider 'grammatical'. Note the connection between the category 'substance' and the grammatical role 'subject'.

the 10 categories are [2]:

divides things into four categories according to the cross-product of whether they can be predicated of a subject (eg in "Bob is blue", 'Bob' is the subject and 'blue' is predicated of 'Bob'), and according to whether they can be in a subject:

Note the primacy of particular substances in this ontology. It seems (to me, this is just my opinion) that in this ontology suggests that 'Bob' is real, and his being a human, his quantity, his color, his relations to other things, where and when we are discussing him, his configuration, his state, actions he is taking, and actions that are being done to him are all secondary abstractions. Note however that grammatically, we can refer to a quality as a subject, eg "Blue is pretty". A color is not a substance because it CAN be predicated upon subjects, but this does not imply that it cannot also itself be a subject sometimes.

As described above, this ontology so far doesn't seem to have a separate place for events and processes as opposed to concrete physical objects (maybe Aristotle treats that elsewhere, though, that just wasn't mentioned on the Wikipedia page?). Presumably these would be different types of particular substances? Or would you say that a process is "in" Time, so Time is the substances, and a process is something else?

important relations:


hegel's categories

" Using his own logical method of combination, later to be called the Hegelian dialectic, of arguing from thesis through antithesis to synthesis, he arrived, as shown in W.T.Stace's work cited, at a hierarchy of some 270 categories. The three very highest categories were Logic, Nature and Spirit. The three highest categories of Logic, however, he called Being, Essence and Notion which he explained as follows:

    Being was differentiated from Nothing by containing with it the concept of the “Other”, an initial internal division that can be compared with Kant’s category of Disjunction. Stace called the category of Being the sphere of common sense containing concepts such as consciousness, sensation, quantity, quality and measure.
    Essence. The “Other” separates itself from the “One” by a kind of motion, reflected in Hegel’s first synthesis of “Becoming”. For Stace this category represented the sphere of science containing within it firstly, the thing, its form and properties; secondly, cause, effect and reciprocity, and thirdly, the principles of classification, identity and difference.
    Notion. Having passed over into the “Other” there is an almost Neoplatonic return into a higher unity that in embracing the “One” and the “Other” enables them to be considered together through their inherent qualities. This according to Stace is the sphere of philosophy proper where we find not only the three types of logical proposition: Disjunctive, Hypothetical and Categorical but also the three transcendental concepts of Beauty, Goodness and Truth.[50]" ---

random list of categories in


Kant's categories

Note that many philosophers, in their discussion of 'categories', considered both topics that we would consider 'ontological' as well as topics that we would consider 'grammatical'. I include these because they are called 'categories' and are famous, but really i think of them as logical (and hence also possibly grammatical) modalities.

" Table of Judgements





Table of Categories




        Inherence and Subsistence (substance and accident)
        Causality and Dependence (cause and effect)
        Community (reciprocity)


Sowa's ontology

Sowa central/top-level/primitive categories

There are twelve 'central' top level categories, which are themselves defined by the triple cross product of a choice of 3 'primitive' categories (Independent, Relative, or Mediating), and a choice of two categories (physical, abstract), and a choice of 2 categories (Continuant, Occurrent). The names fo the twelve categories are:

                        Physical                |           Abstract
              Continuant   |   Occurrent        |    Continuant        Occurrent
Independent     Object     |     Process        |      Schema            Script
Relative        Juncture   |     Participation  |      Description       History
Mediating       Structure  |     Situation      |      Reason            Purpose 

Sowa also gives names to the partial cross-products of the choice of (Independent, Relative, or Mediating), and the choice of (physical, abstract):

                Physical     | Abstract
Independent       Actuality  |   Form  
Relative          Prehension |   Proposition
Mediating         Nexus      |   Intention


Sowa relations

Sowa takes a non-standard approach to formalizing relations, by privileging roles over relations:

" In natural languages, roles are usually represented by nouns, such as mother, brother, author, or driver, but in predicate calculus, they are often represented by dyadic relations, such as motherOf, brotherOf, authorOf, or driverOf. This representation makes the mapping from language to logic unsystematic, since the noun woman is mapped to a type or a monadic predicate woman(x), but the noun mother is mapped to a dyadic predicate motherOf(x,y).

To make the mapping more systematic, the KR ontology, which is presented in the book Knowledge Representation, introduces a primitive dyadic relation Has, which converts roles into relations. The nouns mother, brother, author, and driver are represented by the role types Mother, Brother, Author, and Driver. Those types can be used as type labels in a typed logic, such as conceptual graphs or typed predicate calculus, and they can be used as monadic predicates in untyped predicate calculus. The corresponding dyadic relations, in any typed or untyped version of logic, can be defined in terms of the role and the relation Has. " " --

Some (inferred by me) types of relations:


Sowa processes


Sowa Agents and thematic roles

"Linguistically, an agent is represented by the subject of an active verb. Socially, an agent is an animate being that takes responsibility for its actions in the world. Computationally, an agent is a robot or softbot that can apply general guidelines in deciding how to respond to a specific situation." --

Agents have various properties that Sowa considers to be hard to define in a non-circular manner:

Sowa notes that Aristotle thought that agents have (at least) six related functions: nutrition, perception, desire, locomotion, imagery, and thought.

Participants in a process: "In conceptual graphs, they are represented by conceptual relations that link the concept of a verb to the concepts of the participants in the occurrent expressed by the verb. In frame systems, they are represented by slots in the frame for the corresponding verb. All those notations are equivalent ways of representing the links between a process and its participants."

categorized into 4 categories by the cross product of two choices: source/product and determinant/immanent:


The names of the cross-product categories are:

             Source       Product
Determinant    Initiator    Goal
Immanent       Resource     Essence 

" As an example, consider the sentence Sue sent the gift to Bob by Federal Express. The gift and Federal Express are immanent participants, since the gift (essence) and Federal Express (resource) are present from beginning to end. Sue and Bob, however, are determinant participants, since they determine the course of the process from the initiator (Sue) to the goal (Bob). Unlike the immanent participants, the determinant participants are involved primarily at the endpoints. If Sue happened to write the wrong address, the intended recipient, Bob, might not get involved at all. " --

Now the four roles of Initiator, Resource, Goal, Essence could be further subdivided into <24 'thematic roles' by a choice of (action, process, transfer, spatial, temporal, ambient):


Sowa theories

The following are not partitionings:

Tautologies can have the properties of: Antisymmetry transitivity reflexivity symmetry

transitive and reflexive = preorder transitive and reflexive and antisymmetric = partial order transitive and reflexive and symmetric = equivalence

tree and lattice = linear order

Sowa links


Some less popular (?) ones:


John Wilkins' 40 genera

may be found on Chapter I, 'The General Scheme', page 23, PDF page 49 of the following PDF:

They are the leaf nodes of the following outline (which are numbered):

in his book he gives subcategories for each of these 40 genera.