comment on this:

I still like some aspects of this stuff, especially tarot and qblh -- I think these things are great interest in terms of systems of spiritual categories or of archetypes. I mean, you often see systems of thought with two categories (good/evil or +/-) which all seem to have a solid, deep, qualitatively different meaning, but the major arcana has 22 and they all seem to be deeply meaningful and not to collapse into each other! Sort of like how it would be interesting to categorize all the different moods that music could have or categorize the different kinds of feelings that one feels in dreams but not often while awake -- you get the sense that there could be more than 4 or so categories, but lots of our systems of thought end up not giving you too many categories (or at least that is what happens with me if I try to categorize almost anything while thinking in a standard Western mode).

-- me



belbin roles

INTJ etc

BigFivePersonality? thingee


Leary 8-circuit model and 24 stage model

by # dimensions

2D vs. 3d thinking, meta stuff, etc

from from Dr Neil Johnson's lecture notes for Chaos:

Number of variables



n = 1

Growth, decay, or equilibrium

n = 2


n >= 3


n ? 1

Collective phenomena


Waves and patterns

Spatio-temporal complexity

tarot cards



counting, integer, real, complex #s

Vital Relations: change, identity, time, space, cause-effect, part-whole, representation, role, analogy, disanalogy, property, similarity, category, intentionality, and uniqueness

(a Google Set from some vital relations: Change Cause Effect Representation Space part whole Habit Death Organism Immortality Interaction Scientific Model System Time Cycle Process Evaluation Impact Decision )

cardinal virtues: wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice.

theological virtues: faith, hope, and love.

"Black and white are opposites, and as such we can relate them to each other, on the philosophical level, of dialect[2]. Hegel has three principal dialectics: the dialectics of opposites like black and white that make gray when mixed; of polarity, like north and south, that cannot be mixed as they define each other, are necessary for the other to be at all; and the dialectic of negation, of a and -a. The yin-yang is not the first dialectic as it is not just a gray blob. It is not the dialectic of polarities, as white is as much black as it is white. Nor is black the negation of white, for if white were a and black -a, the yin-yang would be nothing at all. What we must do is take the -a of white and the -a of black, the negation of both of these principles, and examine them in the light of each other." -- Cotter Kelsey


the seven sept god roles in the fictional Song of Ice and Fire series: " The Father: represents divine justice, and judges the souls of the dead. The Mother: represents mercy, peace, fertility, and childbirth. She is sometimes referred to as "the strength of women". The Maiden: represents purity, love, and beauty. The Crone: represents wisdom and foresight. She is represented carrying a lantern. The Warrior: represents strength and courage in battle. The Smith: represents creation and craftsmanship. The Stranger: The Stranger represents death and the unknown. It is rarely prayed to. "

Jordan's contribution roles:

Hindo varnas and India's old caste system: "

The caste system is connected to the Hindu concept of the four varnas, which order and rank humanity by innate spiritual purity. The highest varna is the Brahmins, or priests. Next comes the Kshatriyas, the warriors, and then the Vaishyas, the merchants. The lowest varna is the Shudras, consisting of laborers, artisans and servants who do work that is ritually unclean. Contact between varnas, and particularly the sharing of food and water, must be limited to avoid pollution of higher, purer individuals by lower, more unclean ones.[2]

In practice, the caste system consists of thousands of jatis, generally of a local or regional nature. Each has its own history, customs, and claimed descent from one of the four varnas.[3] Members of a jati may have many different professions, although commonly they will be related in status and nature to the jati's traditional occupation.[4] Wealth and power generally rise with caste status, but individuals may be rich or poor. Subgroups within a jati may practice hypergamy or exogamy. There is no official or universal ranking that determines the caste hierarchy. Precedence depends on the local community's estimation of a jati's secular importance and ritual purity, and is therefore somewhat fluid. A jati can increase its status by growing in size, wealth and power, avoiding low or unclean work, and adopting priestly ways, such as vegetarianism and teetotalism, a process called sanskritization.[5] Generally, however, Brahmans are the highest caste, and at the bottom of society are those associated with occupations considered extremely unclean, such as handling garbage, excrement, or corpses. In the past these castes were called untouchables, because their touch polluted. They were often forbidden from entering temples, living inside the village, drinking from wells used by high castes, or even letting their shadows fall on a Brahman.[6] "

untouchables are also called Dalits

japan's castes: " In Japan's history, social strata based on inherited position rather than personal merits, was rigid and highly formalized. At the top were the Emperor and Court nobles (kuge), together with the Shogun and daimyo. Below them the population was divided into four classes in a system known as mibunsei (身分制). These were: samurai, peasants, craftsmen and merchants ... merchants were thought to be as the meanest class because they did not produce any products ...

Japan had its own untouchable caste, shunned and ostracized, historically referred to by the insulting term Eta, now called Burakumin. "

Indonesian caste system: " Indonesia Main article: Balinese caste system

Balinese caste structure has been described in early 20th century European literature to be based on three categories – triwangsa (thrice born) or the nobility, dwijati (twice born) in contrast to ekajati (once born) the low folks. Four statuses were identified in these sociological studies, spelled a bit differently than the caste categories for India:[21]

    Brahmanas - priest
    Satrias - knighthood
    Wesias - commerce
    Sudras - servitude" suggests that the three norse castes were Warrior (Noble), Freeman (those who must work for a living), Slave

see also indicates that a lord was someone with land to grant to tenants. medieval knights were landless says "The feudal system of the Middle Ages was like a pyramid of power with specific hierarchy. At the bottom of the pyramid, there were serfs, peasants and villeins. The descending order of the pyramid of power of feudal system was the king, members of nobility, knights, archbishop, freemen, yeomen, servants, serfs, peasants, villeins.

However, it was possible, but very rare, for anyone of any class to attain higher ranks. Medieval squires, freemen and yeomen aspired to become knight. On the other hand, a knight who could prove his valiant attitude during a war or tournament could become so rich and strong that he could join the nobility. In addition, the most powerful and resourceful members of nobility could aspire to become kings through coups. " ".

see also . Note that later on some yeoman could own their own farms whose profits could support them without having to labor. distinguishes between nobility (peers, e.g. those with a title from the sovereign), and landed gentry, who are similar to nobility but without the title : " Gentleman, recognised as a separate title by the Statute of Additions of 1413. It was used generally for a man of high birth or rank, good social standing, and wealth, who did not need to work for a living "

" The historical term gentry by itself, so Peter Coss argues, is a construct that historians have applied loosely to rather different societies. Any particular model may not fit a specific society, yet a single definition nevertheless remains desirable.[4][5] The phrase landed gentry referred in particular to the untitled members of the landowning upper class.

The most stable and respected form of wealth has historically been land, and great prestige and political qualifications were (and to a leser extent still are) attached to land ownership. Owning land was a prerequisite for suffrage (the civil right to vote) in county constituencies until the Reform Act 1832; until then, Parliament was largely in the hands of the landowners. " later suggests that the phrase 'landed gentry' was coined by a publisher who sold a book describing the geneologies of rich commoners. The book was originally called "A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, enjoying territorial possessions or high official rank", and was changed to "A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry; or, Commons of Great Britain" presumably to be more flattering.

" The verb "to knight" (i.e. to make someone a knight) appears around 1300, and from the same time, the word "knighthood" shifted from "adolescence" to "rank or dignity of a knight".

In this respect English differs from most other European languages, where the equivalent word emphasizes the status and prosperity of war horse ownership. Linguistically, the association of horse ownership with social status extends back at least as far as ancient Greece, where many aristocratic names incorporated the Greek word for horse, like Hipparchus and Xanthippe; the character Pheidippides in Aristophanes' Clouds has his grandfather's name with hipp- inserted to sound more aristocratic.[citation needed] Similarly, the Greek ἱππεύς (hippeus) is commonly translated "knight"; at least in its sense of the highest of the four Athenian social classes, those who could afford to maintain a warhorse in the state service. "

roman classes:

patrician/plebian castes

" A plebeian who was the first of his line to become consul was known as a novus homo ("new man"), and he and his descendants became "noble" (nobiles)."

Property-based classes: "The census divided citizens into six complex classes based on property. The richest were the senatorial class, who were worth at least 1,000,000 sestertii.[when?] The wealth of the senatorial class was based on ownership of large agricultural estates, and by custom members did not engage in commercial activity.

Below the senatores in rank, but above were the equites ("equestrians" or "knights"), with 400,000 sestertii, who could engage in commerce and formed an influential business class. Certain political and quasi-political positions were filled by equites, including tax farming and, under the Principate, leadership of the Praetorian Guard. Below the equites were three more classes of property-owning citizens; and lastly the proletarii, whose property was valued below 11,000 asses.[citation needed]"

other sources claim there were five classes in between equestrians and proletti:


cotter/cottar/cottager was a peasant of lower status than a villain, but of unknown legal status

cotset was another type of peasant lower than a villain

bordar was another type of peasant below villain

villan/villain/tunsman was a peasant of slightly higher economic status living in a village. Notionally not a free peasant because subject to the manorial rules and court

colibert/freedman was a former slave who had been given his or her freedom and a small piece of land

freeman was a non-noble landholder who had many more rights and higher status than most other peasants; they were later termed yeomen

serjant (plural serjantz) was a wide class of non-noble tenants who gave specific services in return for holding land and property. They included most town-dwelling craftsmen such as carpenters, butchers, bakers and wealthy merchants, but also a separate class of non-noble professional soldiers who wore armour and could own horses but were not knights. Some served as crossbowmen and archers. All serjantz were required by law to have specific military kit such as armour, helmet and spear so they could act as local militia if required. "

Song of Ice and Fire has novice, acolyte, maester, archmaester. archmaester administers the topic tests that give people their chain. Craft or Blue Lodge freemasonry has 3 degrees, apprentice, fellow craft, and master mason.

interestingly, Magic colors use the same 'parent assists, grandparent restrains' mechanics as wu xing (using ordering [white blue black red green]): "The colors adjacent to each other on the pentagon are "allied" and often have similar, complementary abilities. For example, Blue has a relatively large number of flying creatures, as do White and Black, which are next to it. The two non-adjacent colors to a particular color are "enemy" colors, and are thematically opposed. For instance, Red tends to be very aggressive, while White and Blue are often more defensive in nature. " --

VW grammars only need 2 levels:

Sintzoff [VW 1967] has proved that VW grammars are as powerful as PS grammars, which also shows that adding a third level to the building cannot increase its powers.

M. Sintzoff, “Existence of a van Wijngaarden syntax for every recursively enu- merable set”, Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles, vol. 81, no. II, p. 115-118, 1967. A relatively simple proof of the theorem that for every semi-Thue system we can construct a VW grammar that produces the same set.


see also resourceTypes.txt


Sisney's PSIU:

Producing, Stabilizing, Innovating, and Unifying

parts (short term view, structured approach): Producing, Stabilizing whole (long term view, unstructured approach): Innovating, and Unifying

respond (reactive, slower face, process-oriented): Stabilizing, Unifying shape: (forward-looking, faster pace, results-oriented): Producing, Innovating

stabilize: makes things controllable, regulate, administer, systematize, focus on how, analysis produce: makes things produce results, generate, make, transform, focus on what, autonomy unify: makes things respond as a whole, integrate, harmonize, coalesce, focus on who, processing innovate: makes things adapt, create, entrepreneur, invent, focus on why not?, excitement

note: is this really adding much more than an affine transformation of the Big Five personality traits: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism?

stabilizer: conscientious, neurotic; produce: extraversion, openness, ?; innovative: openness; unify: agreeableness

hmm.. yes, i guess it is, because the producer doesn't really fit in there.

it's also fun to think of how these fit into the 5 factions from the book Divergence. producer = candor and dauntless, stabilizer and unifier = abnegation and amity, innovate = erudite (and possibly candor?)

pretty good:


" Through his study of his patients’ “number” dreams, Jung came to believe that the smaller natural numbers[12] are symbols in much the same sense that the people and events of our dreams are symbols of personified collective character traits and behavioral situations. The integers seemed to correspond to progressive stages of development within the psyche. In brief, one corresponds to a stage of non-differentiation; two—polarity or opposition; three—movement toward resolution, as expressed, e.g., in the Christian trinity; four—stability, wholeness, as in a quaternity, or a mandala, which is most commonly four-sided.[13]

As so many times before in his career, Jung went beyond this limited model, and took a brilliant leap toward generalization of these discoveries: he speculated that number itself—as expressed most basically in the small integers—was the most primitive archetype of order.

"There is something peculiar, one might even say mysterious, about numbers…[if] a group of objects is deprived of every single one of its properties or characteristics, there still remains, at the end, its number, which seems to indicate that number is something irreducible.…[something which] helps more than anything else to bring order into the chaos of appearances.…It may well be the most primitive element of order in the human mind.… we [can] define number psychologically as an archetype of order which has become conscious.[14]" [13] Jung’s colleague Marie-Louise von Franz has extended this work in her Number and Time (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1974)., C. G. Jung, “Synchronicity: an Acausal Connecting Principle,” par. 870." --

" Number is a very ancient archetype that seems to predate humanity itself. In Number and the Language of Science, mathematician Tobias Dantzig mentions a number of examples of animals and even insects who seem to possess a number sense. In one striking example, he tells the story of a crow who had built its nest in the watch-tower on a squire's estate. The squire was determined to shoot the crow, but the crow was too canny; whenever the squire or his men would enter the tower, the crow would fly away until the coast was clear.

The squire tried sending two men into the barn. One stayed hidden in the tower and one came out again. However, the crow was too smart and wouldn't return until the second man also came out. The experiment was tried on successive days—unsuccessfully—until finally five men went in and only four came out. This time the crow evidently thought that all the men had come out, and returned to the watch-tower. The squire was finally rid of the crow.[17]

The story seems to demonstrate that a crow (or at least the crow in the story) has a sense of “one”, “two”, “three”, and “many”. When five men went in and four came out, the crow saw “many” go in and “many” go out and thought that it was safe to return. Interestingly, early twentieth century anthropologists found that the numeric systems of some African, South American, Oceanic and Australian cultures had the same limitations. E.g., the Australian aborigines—who we now realize have a very sophisticated culture—only had numbers for “one” through “six”, and many”.

Though crows are very intelligent birds, no one would argue that human beings and crows are of comparable intelligence. It is more likely that the archetypal quality of the smaller numbers is so ancient that it predates humanity itself, and is carried in the heritage of creatures even as primitive as insects. Because human beings are capable of counting (“one, two, three…”), we imagine that is how numbers were arrived at. But when crows can recognize “one”, “two”, “three” and “many”, few of us would argue they arrived at these numeric relationships by counting per se. Instead there must be a pattern recognition, a “primordial image” (to use Jung's earlier formulation of “symbol”) that corresponds to the smaller integers. In other words, we have an innate sense of what “one” and “two” and “three” mean.[18]

Now if we conceive numbers as having been discovered, and not merely invented as an instrument for counting, then on account of their mythological nature they belong to the realm of godlike human and animal figures and are just as archetypal as they.[19] ... [17] Tobias Dantzig, Number and the Language of Science (New York: MacMillan? Company, 1954), p. 3.

[18] In fact, the Australian Aborigines actually limit themselves to “one” and “two”, then use composites of “one” and “two” to make up numbers up to “six”. For example, “three” is “two” and “one”, “four” is “two” and “two”, “five” is “two” and “two” and “one”, “six” is “two” and “two” and “two”. They count in pairs, so that they wouldn't be likely to notice if two pins were removed from a heap of seven pins, but would instantly recognize if only one pin had been removed. See Tobias Dantzig, Number and the Language of Science, p. 14.

[19] C. G. Jung, Collected Works, Vol. 10: Civilization in Transition, par. 776. Jung’s emphasis. "


" For most of us, however, this archetypal pattern recognition is unlikely to extend past the smaller counting numbers. Since, at this stage, the recognition of number is the recognition of a primordial image or patten, there is as yet little if any distinction between arithmetic and geometry. As soon as arithmetic and geometry split and go different directions, it becomes much less clear that Jung is necessarily right in his guess that all mathematics emerges from the smaller counting numbers. Geometry by its various nature deals with continuous lines and figures and planes, while arithmetic develops out of ever grander extensions of the discrete counting numbers. At the time when Jung was developing these ideas, he was corresponding with physicist Wolfgang Pauli. Pauli, inspired by Jung, was searching for a neutral language which could underlie both the physical and psychological worlds.[21] Being more mathematically sophisticated than Jung, Pauli recognized that the issue came to a head when the development of arithmetic reached the point where it was forced to deal with infinite quantities.

If, therefore, a more general concept of archetype is used today, then it should be understood in such a way that included within it is the mathematical primal intuition which expresses itself, among other ways, in arithmetic, in the idea of the infinite series of integers, and in geometry, in the idea of the continuum.[22]

At that point, Jung’s speculation becomes identical with Cantor’s continuum hypothesis; i.e., are there any infinities that lie between the infinity of the integers and the infinity of the geometric continuum? ... [21] See Wolfgang Pauli, “The Influence of Archetypal Ideas on the Scientific Theories of Keeler,” in C. G. Jung and Wolfgang Pauli, The Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche (New York: Pantheon Books, 1955). Also see Charles R. Card, “The Archetypal View of Jung and Pauli,” Psychological Perspectives #24 & #25 (Los Angeles: C. G. Jung Institute, 1991)

[22] Quotation by Wolfgang Pauli, in Charles R. Card, "The Archetypal Hypothesis of Wolfgang Pauli and C.G. Jung: Origins, Development, and Implications", in K. V. Laurikainen and C. Montonen, eds., Symposia on the Foundations of Modern Physics, 1992 (Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co., 1993), p. 382. " --

"In Cohen's view, the continuum was clearly an incredibly rich set one produced by a bold new axiom which could never be approached by any piecemeal process of construction.[34]... [34] Joseph Warren Dauben, Georg Cantor: His Mathematics and Philosophy of the Infinite, p. 269. " --


wu xing personality test:


interesting numbers: 0 1 2 3 4 5 7 12

what were ramanujan's number personalities/personifications from 1-13?

but shouldnt 6 be interesting for the same reason as 12?

but 12 might have the smallest proportion of non-factors in the positive integers less than it

5 is interesting in that all of 1 2 3 4 5 are

so mb 7 and 12 are somewhat less interesting. clearly 4 is less interesting than 2 and 3, so the most interesting are 0 1 2 3.

i guess 6 is the first composite with multiple distinct factors, though. also from wikipedia:

" The smallest non-abelian group is the symmetric group S3 which has 3! = 6 elements.

S6, with 720 elements, is the only finite symmetric group which has an outer automorphism. "

what about 8, is it boring yet? again from Wikipedia:

"8 is the order of the smallest non-abelian group all of whose subgroups are normal."

"8 is the dimension of the octonions and is the highest possible dimension of a normed division algebra."

what about 9? yeah, Wikipedia doesnt note anything interesting (to me) for 9

i guess 12 is interesting mainly as the 'hackiest most practical number' due to the above property of having many factors for its magnitude

in human culture, we see a bunch of 2 and 3 and 4 element systems and some 5, but no 6. there is the 7 chakra system but its based off one school, other schools have diff. numbers of chakras. so i guess 5 is probably about all that the untrained human mind can handle. ah, i bet thats why 7 seems wise/old/ghostly. -- we know it's beyond (most of) us

is symbolic thought binary or trinary (RDF)? maybe its quinary.

idea; start with +,-,subject,verb,object and make something more symmetric. maybe look at kant's table of categories/judgements? quantity,quality,relation,modality?

want 5 'places' each of which can take on 5 (kinds of?) values

bah, the idea of having each of 5 places having on of 5 values is so binary!

subject/object/verb/meta/? space/time/matter/energy (or is it mass/energy?)/? configuration? knowledge/viewpoint/perspective? gravity? 0/1/-1/?/?

rdf provenance is like mapping onto another graph, like configuration

polarity/quantity/(negation?), conditionality (from cs; e.g. if statements), (conditionality maybe or may not be the same as) role/relation, modality?, meta/paradox/escape/transcend (synthesis in thesis/antithesis/synthesis), concreteness/ identity in group theory e.g. successor/constants/projection fns in primitive recursion? and what about the object(s) to be operated on?

i guess configuration is like cs conditionality and mb role/relation?

are meta and perspective distinct? meta and configuration (annotation)?

3 = thesis/anti/synth, annotation/quotation, OR verb/role

so do we already get a whole graph structure for 3, as opposed to 'n values in n positional roles' for 2?

then what for 4,5? maybe something more like human language

hmm.. even simple positional assembly/machine language can have a 5_par scheme: opcode, 2 x (operand, addressing mode)

where does probability come in here?


if you consider the powerset arising from elements True/False (e.g. a 'relational' logic), {}, {F}, {T}, {F,T}, we get the:

Indian catuskoti: true, false, neither true nor false, both true and false

(the Hasse diagram of First Degree Entailment logic:

  /  \{T,F} {} \ / {F} )

we can add a fifth value, 'ineffable', to form a 5-valued many-valued logic.

If you then take the power set of that, you get plurivalent logic.

Plurivalent logic can be motivated by König’s paradox:

" Ordinals are numbers that extend the familiar counting numbers, 0, 1, 2, etc, beyond the finite. After we have been through all the finite numbers (of which there is, of course, an infinity), there is a next number, ω, and then a next, ω+1, and so on, forever. These ordinals share an interesting property with the counting numbers: for any set of them, if there are any members at all, there must be a least one. How far, exactly, the ordinals go is a vexed question both mathematically and philosophically. Nevertheless, one fact is beyond dispute: there are many more ordinals than can be referred to using a noun phrase in a language with a finite vocabulary, such as English. This can be shown by a perfectly rigorous mathematical proof.

Now, if there are ordinals that cannot be referred to in this way, it follows that one of them must be less than all the others, for that is true of any collection of ordinals. Consider the phrase ‘the least ordinal that cannot be referred to’. It obviously refers to the number in question. This number, then, both can and cannot be referred to. That’s our paradox. And since it cannot be referred to, one cannot say anything about it. So the facts about it are ineffable; but we can say things about it, such as that it is the least ordinal that can’t be referred to. We have said ineffable things. "

and similar problems in philosophy:

" (Kant) distinguished between two notions of noumenon, the realm beyond the senses: a positive one and a negative one. According to him, only the negative one is legitimate. We cannot talk about things of this kind; we just need to be aware of them to mark the limit of what we can talk about. Pardon? In explaining what they do, are we not talking about them? Well, yes, of course we are. "

" Gorampa was troubled enough by the situation that he attempted to distinguish between two ultimate realities: a real ultimate reality, which is ineffable, and a ‘nominal’ ultimate reality, which is what we end up talking about when we try to talk about the real ultimate. But wait a minute – the nominal ultimate is obviously effable: by definition, it is the reality that we can talk about. In that case, if we say that ultimate reality is ineffable and we are actually talking about the nominal ultimate, what we are saying is false. Thus Gorampa’s proposal refutes itself. "







sisney's work/management personality/role


eyesnck's personality scales: neuroticism, psychoticism, extraversion (and a Lie scale)

-- the Big Five personality traits recognized by consensus psych:

openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism


why are there seven days of the week?

summary: three theories:

note on the planets:

note that the gods associated with the planets are archetypes of facets of interpersonal/social interaction/roles


common officers for sturgis standard code are president, vice-president, treasurer, secretary

other officers are e.g.

seargent (sentinel), parliamentarian, reporter, advisor, historian, chaplain







the Divergent castes: Abnegation (selfless rules), Dauntless (brave soldiers), Erudite (knowledge-valuing technicians and scientists), Amity (peace-loving friendly farmers) and Candor (honest lawyers)

the castes in Plato's republic: the philosopher-kings, the silver/military, and the bronze/iron (everyone else)

plato's five types of governments:



" In order to make the game more accessible to children, Sierra used an innovative idea that would not reappear in the genre for the next 10 years: the text parser was removed in favor of the function keys that performed various actions: F3 would choose an inventory item, F4 would use it, F6 would perform "Use" near the character's location, and F8 would "look". The simplification of the two actions "Look" and "Use" was not reused in Sierra's later games. However, it somewhat resembles the control system of other later simpler point-and-click adventure games, such as the King's Quest VII or The Dig whose interfaces only consisted of "Look" and "Use". Being based on a Disney film, the graphics present some relative 'flexibility', compared to the monolithic and straight sceneries of previous and later games. " --

"we came up with instead was the function keys were always on the IBM keyboards back then, so we ended up using the function keys. And it's odd because the names that I picked for the function keys are the same names that we ended up using 10 years later for the icons on the verbs bar that we put across the top of screen. Remember when Roberta came up with the idea of using icons? ... We ended up using the same verbs because it's common to the adventure-game language. We had a use and a look and a take and inventory and all these keys that were -- yeah, that were used in Black Cauldron and then we kinda dropped that whole idea and never used it again until, I don't know. When did the point and click thing start? '88? So that's about four or five years later. " --


list of values used in Lincoln-Douglas debate (any LD debater can make up new values so this cannot be a comprehensive list):

accessible acceptance accountability accuracy achievement aliveness altruism and/or sacrifice agreement and/or consensus agreeableness ambition attainable attention non-attention art and/or meaning autonomy authority and/or respect for authority basic physical needs: air, food, water, shelter, warmth, sleep, (clothing?) beauty belongingness benevolence capability caution church and/or organized religion confidence cooperation collective good completion community compassion competence consent conscientiousness convenience and/or ease and/or effortlessness courage and/or valor democracy discretion diversity dominance effort effectiveness efficiency egalitarianism empowerment esteem equality fairness fame non-fear formality informality fraternity family flexibility free expression freedom and/or liberty friendship golden rule glory growth (quantitative) growth (in the sense of fundamental change, changing the nature of the system) happiness non-harm health helpfulness honesty and/or truth and/or clarity and/or trustworthiness honor and/or courage hospitality human dignity humility inclusiveness independence individualism influence integrity and/or virtue intelligence and/or wisdom justice kindness knowledge law leisure life many lives long life love and/or passion majority rule mastery measurable meritocracy morale might nature humanity and/or humanism intimiacy loyalty openness openness to new things order peace perfection play pleasure politness power propriety pragmatic predictability prestige privacy productivity progress property protection prudence purity and/or sanctity socialization time alone support support from the powerful support from many quality of life real realistic reciprocity relevant respectability responsibility fulfilling committments richness satisfaction security and/or safety self-actualization self-control and/or self-restraint self-knowledge self-sufficiency sex simplicity spirituality speed status strength success and/or results and/or achievement sustainability stability and/or certainty temperance on-timeness, timeliness tolerance tradition transparency unity and/or solidarity uniqueness and/or individuality unpredictability wholeness work

mercy forgiveness, everyday kindness

"each of the six Confucian virtues: virtue (徳 toku?), benevolence (仁 jin?), propriety (礼 rei?), sincerity (信 shin?), justice (義 gi?) and knowledge (智 chi?)." --

" The manifesto makes recommendations for Chinese culture to accept scientific and technological advances, but more clearly lays out lessons for the West to learn.[17] The list includes five elements that, according to the manifesto, “the west must also learn from the East if it is to carry out its task as the world’s cultural leader.” The cultivation of a world culture, as well as promoting Chinese culture to the world’s stage are primary goals of the manifesto and in order for either cultures to succeed they must engage in authentic communication. The manifesto dictates that the West needs the spirit and capacity of sensing the presence of what is at every particular moment, and of giving up everything that can be had. The second element is the all-embracing understanding or wisdom, third is the feeling of mildness and compassion. Fourth is how to perpetuate its culture, and the fifth that the “whole world is like one family.” [18] The signers of the manifesto asserted that by accepting New Confucianism in accordance with aspects of Western culture, the future of mankind can transform to be a more open, inclusive and creative culture.[19] "

li, yi, lian, and chi "li (ritual/decorum), yi (rightness or duty), lian (integrity or honesty), and chi (sense of shame)" "Li means 'regulated attitude.' Yi means 'right conduct.' Lian means 'clear discrimination.' Chi means 'real self-consciousness" "the "Four Social Controls" (propriety, rectitude, honesty and a sense of shame) and the "Eight Virtues" (Loyalty, filial piety, benevolence, love, faithfulness, justice, harmony and peace)" from [1]

five constants of confucianism [2]:

Xin has also been translated as fidelity [3] or truthfulness [4]. Li is often translated as propriety. Zhi is sometimes translated as wisdom.

note: the value of 'honesty' is hard to hold for rebel organizations, which must often operate in secret


todo: read:

todo: copy to ./oldOpinionsFromWebsite/somePrincipalsOfGovernance.txt

already done:


see also:


names of the quarks: up, down, strange, charm, top, bottom used to be: up, down, strange, charm, truth, beauty


the 12 Empyrean+Lords of the video game series Aion: : In the game they are humans who were transformed into powerful demi-gods by a higher power ("Aion"). They were at war with enemy creatures, the Balaur. They had been given a Tower of Eternity, which they protected with Aether (magical energy). 10 of them went to fight the enemy while 2 of them stayed behind to protect the Tower.

Then one of them, Israphel, proposed a peace conference with the Balaur. 7/12 of them voted in favor. However, "When the Balaur arrived at the Tower of Eternity, a commotion broke out, killing a Balaurian captain; the remaining Balaur, enraged, marched upon and destroyed the Tower, which set off a chain reaction that threatened to destroy the planet. However, Israphel and Siel made the ultimate sacrifice and gave their own lives to protect Atreia. The world was shattered into two "hemi-shells", with a dark Abyss lying between them; but it was held together by the aetheric field created from the Tower Lords' sacrifice." [10]. After this, the five Empyrean Lords who had voted against peace and the five remaining ones who had voted for peace were angry at each other, and retreated to different domains of the world, the ones who had voted against peace to a northern, dark, difficult domain, and the ones who had voted for peace to a southern, light, pleasant domain.

"Four of the major Empyrean Lords represent the four cardinal directions--Azphel the north, Ariel the south, Siel the east, and Israphel the west--and they were traditionally perceived as supporting the world together from these four points, with the remaining eight Lords to aid them." [11]

Also paraphrased from [12] :

The two guardians of the Tower both voted for peace. They sacrificed themselves to save the world after the Tower was destroyed. Their names were:

Israphel, Lord of Space Siel, Lady of Time

The other ones who voted for peace were called the Seraphim Lords, the rulers of Elysea:

Leader: Ariel, Lady of Light Nezekan, Lord of Justice Vaizel, Lord of Freedom Kaisinel, Lord of Illusion Yustiel, Lady of Life

The five who went to the north were called the Shedim Lords, the rulers of Asmodae:

Leader: Azphel, Lord of Shadow Zikel, Lord of Destruction Triniel, Lady of Death Lumiel, Lady of Wisdom Marchutan, Lord of Fate "

attributes of each one:

the tower guardians (those who voted for peace and killed themselves to save the world when the Tower was destroyed by the enemy) "The Lords of the four cardinal directions were the leaders of the twelve Empyrean Lords, and they were always known to be noble and pure. However, Israphel began to harbor a desire for greater power, and feelings of jealousy toward Siel. Eventually these feelings led to his corruption. ... He saw himself as noble and pure like Siel, but he was secretly consumed with jealousy and ambition." "When her fellow guardian Israphel called for peace with the Balaur toward the end of the Millennium War, she allowed herself to be talked into it in spite of her misgivings. ...She believed that guarding the Tower was her entire reason for being, and her devotion and noble spirit made her an ideal guardian. During the Millennium War, when the battle with the Balaur seemed never-ending, she allowed Israphel--her fellow Tower guardian--to convince her that the best way to guard Aion was to make peace with the Balaur. When the fighting broke out inside the Tower, Siel realized her fatal mistake and couldn’t bear the shame."

Noble and pure. "

the Elysea ones (those who voted for peace and moved to the light and easy south) "Ariel is known as the Lady of Light and is one of the Empyrean Lords. When Israphel called for peace with the Balaur toward the end of the Millennium War, Ariel was his main supporter...She became the leader of the Seraphim Lords and ruler of all Elyos. ...She harbors deep disappointment and regret that Azphel’s ignorance and recklessness led to the failure of the peace accord. Although it is assumed she has special abilities like the other lords, these abilities have never been revealed to outsiders. ..Amiable and thoughtful" "Nezekan is known as the Lord of Justice..He serves as Ariel’s right hand, obeying her commands and enforcing her will...His power is the most equally matched, of all the Daevas in Atreia, with that of the Shedim Lord Zikel...Nezekan has amazing physical power and can endure any kind of attack. He is known for using "Izith", the shield of mystery...Nezekan and Triniel met again after the opening of the Abyss and fought bitterly. It is common knowledge that they don’t get along, though they are secretive as to the reason....Fair, upright, and thoughtful. He is seen as reserved and prudent, but he acts swiftly once he’s reached a decision. "Vaizel is known as the Lord of Freedom. ..Vaizel is treated like the black sheep of Elysea. Even Nezekan, who is known for his tolerance, has little patience for Vaizel’s flamboyant ways and liberal views. Vaizel doesn’t acknowledge Nezekan’s authority, which further strains their relationship. His talents include archery and disguise, and he is very fleet of foot. He prefers to mingle with humans rather than staying in the city of gods, Sanctum. He is also not that active in the war, which should be one of his duties as a guardian god...Vaizel is excessive, boisterous, and vain. He puts his own needs and desires above those of Elysea. Often underestimated for his mischievous, playful nature, he is actually quite sharp and calculating. " "Kaisinel is known as the Lord of Illusion...He is such a horrifying being that even other Empyrean Lords prefer not to interact with him. He has the ability to mold Aether into any shape he chooses, and some suspect that he even has the power to summon or create items. During the early days of the Abyss War, he was insulted by Lumiel from Pandaemonium, and he is waiting for the day he can take his revenge...Gloomy and doesn’t reveal his thoughts. Think of lives very lightly, enjoys killing, very warlike. Symbol: Illusion, Fear, Spiritmaster. Yustiel is known as the Lady of Life..Always friendly and positive, Yustiel is loved and respected by all the lords in Elysea. She has a gentle, caring nature, and craves peace above all else. This often puts her at odds with Kaisinel. Yustiel stays in Elysea out of obedience and faithfulness to Ariel, but she cares not where her home is. Her only wish is to end the war and go back to the time of ancient Atreia. Fair, upright, amiable, and warm-hearted.

the Asmodae ones (those who voted against peace and moved to the dark and difficult north): " Azphel is known as the Lord of Shadow.... When Israphel called for peace with the Balaur toward the end of the Millennium War, Azphel was his most vehement opponent....He became the leader of the Shedim Lords and ruler of all Asmodians. ...Even Zikel, the Lord of Destruction, who is normally arrogant and prideful, bows before him. And Nezekan, who is said to be the strongest of the Elyos, fears him. His strength is said to be that of Nezekan and Zikel combined. He believes that Ariel is too weak-willed to be a leader, and resents her attitude that she knew best how to protect the Tower of Eternity, in spite of his urging against trying to make peace. He believes that her weakness and ignorance caused the destruction of the Tower and the shattering of Atreia. He believes that the utmost priority for the Lords is to eliminate the Balaur and protect the tower, and that Ariel has abandoned her responsibilities. Decisive and strong-willed. Strict with everybody, including himself; a perfectionist. " " Zikel is known as the Lord of Destruction...The right arm of Azphel, who always understands his lord’s will better than anybody, Zikel implements and executes Azphel’s commands. He tends to look down on everybody other than his leader. He is skillful at handling any kind of weapon, but particularly excels with swords. He harbors the deepest hatred towards the Balaur and the Seraphim Lords, and he is especially on bad terms with Nezekan, who before the Cataclysm was a rival of his. When Deltras and his followers from the Legion of Storm, Nezekan’s dedicated Legion, appeared from the Abyss, Zikel caught them and attempted to make them renounce their allegiance. This was the provocation for the Abyss War. Zikel strongly disagreed with the idea of peace with the Balaur, and this resentment has only grown in the intervening centuries. Intrepid and arrogant. Acts on anything without reserve and can even be violent. Lack of self-control. " " Triniel is known as the Lady of Death...If Zikel is Azphel’s right arm, she is his left. There are those who say that her dispassionate nature makes her stronger than the hot-headed Zikel. She is mysterious and private, but she is known for her ability to strike fatally at her enemy’s weakness. There is a rumor that she was once a lover of Nezekan, but those who saw them battling it out in the Abyss don’t give this gossip much credence...She is hidden in a veil of mystery, and not much is known about her. It is said that she is cold as ice. " " Lumiel is known as the Lady of Wisdom..Despite her youthful and innocent appearance before the Cataclysm, wise Lumiel understood the nature and essence of Aether better than anybody. Her ability to channel it is still unparalleled, and as a result, she has the strongest magical power in all Atreia. During the Abyss War, she has battled Kaisinel, the Lord of Illusion, many times, and usually got the better of him... but she is still wary of his power. Before the Cataclysm, she was curious, innocent, and mischievous. In the centuries since, she has withdrawn and become something of a mysterious figure. " " Marchutan is known as the Lord of Fate...His ties seem to be a mystery....Honest and stoic, rigid. "


Tolkein's Ainur/Ainu/Valar (male) and Valier (female):

"The Lords of the Valar are seven; and the Valier, the Queens of the Valar, are seven also. These were their names in the Elvish tongue as it was spoken in Valinor, though they have other names in the speech of the Elves in Middle-earth, and their names among Men are manifold. The names of the Lords in due order are: Manwë, Ulmo, Aulë, Oromë, Mandos, Lórien, and Tulkas; and the names of the Queens are: Varda, Yavanna, Nienna, Estë, Vairë, Vána, and Nessa. Melkor is counted no longer among the Valar, and his name is not spoken upon Earth." -- The Silmarillion, Valaquenta

males (good):

male, evil:


Among them, Melkor is the most powerful, but after that, these are (the Aratar; "in majesty they are peers"):

Links: 's ideas on some of the Valar's strengths and weaknesses:

    Manwë – Purity and Justice (but he did not understand evil)
    Ulmo – Dedication and Perseverence (he had no partner like the other faithful Valar)
    Aulë – Curiosity and Creativity (which made him rash and impatient)
    Oromë – Courage and Speed (but he sometimes overlooked things in his haste)
    Tulkas – Strength and Confidence (but he was prone to anger)
    Namo – Judgment and Prophecy (but he seldom spoke)

(i would say, Tulkas's weakness is not anger, but his lack of whatever it is that makes one a good councillor/concern for past and future; Orome seems like the possibly overly angry/rigid one; and i would say Aule's weakness is perhaps not rashness, but a selfish/uncaring nature that leads him to prioritize his projects first, rather than concern for the world; not that he is evil though, he just maybe doesnt pay attention to those things as much as he ought)

another analysis (by me, and inspired by those above):

the male Valar represent virtues of personal activity; the source of energy of an engine, like gasoline.

the female Valar represent shaping, the form in service to which energy will be channeled, such as the idea of turning the energy in gasoline into rotational momentum; certain types of system processes.

Varda: Stars, light, hearing. Not quite sure how to describe this as a shape. For an idea of her weakness, see

Yavanna: Processes of growth; the sort of mathematical processes that makes plants beautiful.

Nienna: compassion, appreciation for (and hence prevention of) suffering of others

Vairë: it is death which makes each person's life finite. Combined with each person's uniqueness, this allows us to assign an infinite meaning to each person.

Estë: Rest/sleep is a state of being; more generally, processes of maintenance and repair

Vána: Spring, beauty, wildness, outspoken. Processes of blossoming.

Nessa: youngest but also weakest. Youth is a shape, a modality of being. Today, humans would like to prolong life; but if you prevent one cause of death (eg heart attack), you soon fall prey to another (eg neurodegenerative diseases); and even if you avoided all those, you would eventually get cancer. What if you avoided all of these? As you lived longer and longer, you would likely do more and more unethical things (what is the chance that a 10,000 year old person has never ever intentionally broken an important promise? Compare to the chance for a 20-year old) and hence your 'story' would become blighted with impure, unethical actions (sins) (a metaphor for this: think of the old dragon that needed a bath in Spirited Away) (think also of old vampires in contemporary stories). Seizing on this idea of 'corruption' and generalizing it past ethics back to physical and mental phenomena, one can imaging that with immortality might come an ever-growing list, not only of sins, but of mental and physical injuries (corruptions). So, if humanity managed to stop death, perhaps we would simply trade this for a world full of old, corrupted people. It there any way to be immortal yet retain youth? I think this is what Nessa symbolizes; to be immortal but young, the tradeoff is limited power (and, likely, growth).

also, it's interesting to look at the three singles: Ulmo, Melkor, and Nienna. Since Ulmo and Nienna are of roughly equal status one thinks of them as the loners, and that this is not a tragedy but simply in their nature; but I wonder if Melkor and Nienna could have been together in a parallel world; surely Nienna would not have so much to cry over if Melkor had not turned evil? (one might at first think Nienna is significantly less powerful than Varda and Yavanna and so would not be matched with Melkor, but they were both Aratar).


i always thought that everyone associated the number "8" with insanity (maybe not literal mental illness, but the slang meaning of the word, 'craziness, to a degree perhaps unpleasant'), perhaps because of it being 'confusing' for being made up of (prime factor-wise) nothing but a bunch of factors of two (like a hall of mirrors).

but a quick google search suggests that it's just me.

so mb i should note some other personal associations:


parent/engineer/warrior from


athens' classes:


sparta's constitution (note: there are not hereditary classes, just various parts of the Spartan constitution):

modern social classes:

some of the above also somewhat matches the four varnas (if you really stretch): Brahmins: priests/scholars (upper class); like generals, they look at the big picture; like spartan elders, they interpret customs Kshatriyas: upper class or possibly upper middle class; like knights, they defend; like Spartan apelia constitutional body, they rule Vaishyas: lower middle class?. possibly like modern middle class? possibly like marx's petit bourgois? possibly similar to the Perioeci? Shudras: lower class. possibly similar to the Perioeci? like thetes? (dalits): like spartan slaves

anglo-saxon middle ages: royalty nobles non-noble landed gentry yeoman / franklin / Freemen / (do burghers go here too? i think so) serf (or 'villein') slave says that a primary division is: priest warrior worker

priest/warrior/worker maps onto the parent/warrior/engineer from : shi (gentry scholars), the nong (peasant farmers), the gong (artisans and craftsmen), and the shang (merchants and traders).

nowadays things seem to be expanded (athough there were always also non-warrior non-priest actors, etc). Can we make a slightly longer list replacing warrior, priest, common?

politician, scientist, (intellectual?), media, worker, priest?, merchant, emergency svcs?

thinker, connector, manager, merchant, worker, warrior? i guess athelete is warrior and wall st analyst hedge fund is thinker. But still a lot of the other don't quite fit in any of these. mb lawyers, consultant, administrators are all "administrators" but what about oldschool wall st traders? doctors? white collar vs blue collar worker vs waiter? programmer? pilot? life coach? adult gym instructor? teacher? cia agent? skydiving instructor? cult leader? prostitute? cryptoanalyst? actor? painter? historian? librarian? dj? clown? guy who pretends to stand still in the park? musician? guy who plays chess in the park? obviously this classification is incomplete

i guess there are various ways to divide professions:

the latter is perhaps closest to the priest-warrior-worker distinction, which is most often heard when describing feudalism, caste systems, and other systems of politico-socio-economic stratification. So we see perhaps why it seems less applicable today, where the system is that people have idential political rights regardless of their job.

still, in terms of the old systems, one might say that early fedualism would be an 'Age of the (Armed) Warrior' (eg (armed) security is at a premium, so the (armed) warriors are put in charge, and you can get the most power by providing services as an (armed) warrior, and being a good (armed) warrior); although i suppose the Catholic Church ended up getting a fair bit of power, as well. The present age might be said to be either an Age of the Merchant or an Age of the Scientist. "Being king or a smith was not by choice, it was an inherited position."

--- has an interesting idea of "five basic life areas": family, social, work, education, leisure.


34 Clifton StrengthsFinder? Themes (paraphrased from [20]):


tarot card of (goal: a basis set for thought): evolution, thought, martial arts/attack and defence, hierarchy, various dynamics concept equilibrium etc, identity, qualia, trade, space, time, number/quantity, sense, action, memory, event, choice, power, goal (and success and failure), necessity/natural law/law, implication/rule (a rule is merely a necessary pattern, but these are sufficiently different in application domain), negation, and, or, glass plate game stuff, hypothetical, contradiction, proof, evidence, chance, probability distribution, knowledge, good and evil, morality (or is good applied to a person enoug?), prediction, awareness, self-knowledge, beginning and ending (temporal and spatial extent/size, as opposed to point coordinates), dimension, coordinate, infinity, recursion, induction, zero, one, addition, multiplication, inverse, function, relation, graph/link, variable (and variable substution, and expression), graph cycle, homomorphism, function, contradiction, set, definition, symbol, signified, signified, reference, connotation, form/content/representation, paradox, understanding, love, entity/actor/agent, subject object, modify/Alter, property/attribuute, possession, part/whole, isa instance class, commandimperative/request, replyreponse, replace, search/find, discover, create, property/ownership, positive feedback, negative feedback, periodicity/repetition/homogeneity/plurality, saturation/fullempty, accomodation (what's the word? a neuron renormalizes to a constant signal), thesis/antithesis/synthsis, discrete/continuous, home, process, happiness, beauty, contestt/conflict, cooperation, music, meaning, art, judgement, computation, reality, direction/axis, equation, pattern, derivative, circle/hypersphere, chaos (mathematical), open/closed, duality, story/narrative (not just a hypothetical timeline, but plot, characters, etc), dream, concrete/abstract, form/shape, destiny/fate, selfreference, reference, attract (attractors, also physics, also 'tendency'), create, life, cause/effect, unity, all/some/one, truefalse (cs), truth (philosophy/knowledge of reality), alternative (different from choice, which is a cognitive (cog) concept), concept? (different from isa/instance/class?), order (in the mathematical sense eg lt, gt, lte, equal), metaphor, mechanical, correlation/causation/tendency/typical/prototype, plan, agree, design (goal-driven creation; but not necesarily the common connotaion of a mechanical creation procedure), hole, point line/ surface (manifold), circle, polygon, procedure, algebra?, region? (got region already via extend/duration of space, i think), sequence (temporal pattern), play (in the fun sense), general/specific (eg strategy/tactic duality; different from isa, more like a hierarchy, but also not like king/noble/citizen/serf), purity, harm, authority, fairness, liberty/oppression, altruism, competence, sacred/holy, nice/kindness, politeness, rights (in the political/legal sense), evolution, paradigm, color, basis set/'alphabet', filter, move, copy using this i can make many things clearer to myself; ge in one sense strategy is just a plan or class of plan (general plan), but in anothe.,kr, it's a story about a plan,like, protect, illusion/lie


focus on the numbers 1 thru 12 when presenting small sets of things, and facts about integers

one important thing would be to at least just visit the wikipedia pages for each of those numbers; they usually have some number-theory facts


a duality: mechanistic vs life-like systems;



one way of constructing a classification: alternate steps of:

You can apply these steps not just at the top-level, but also to create new sub-classes within some existing class.

There are parallels to biological development processes, in which progenitor cells split and differentiate. For example, consider the following biological process which could explain how a structure like human hands could have 10 fingers (i'm not saying that this is actually how we have 10 fingers, it's just an abstract example):

so, we end up with two identical hands (bilateral symmetry from the first split). On each hand, there is a thumb, and four identical fingers (generated from the last two splits; 4 = 2^2); so each hand has 2^2 + 1 = 5 digits total. So there are 2*(1 + 2^2) = 10 digits total.

note: if you want to AVOID classifications with cross-products in them, one way is to only look at ones with prime numbers of categories; since these have no factors, they can't contain cross-products. However, it's also possible for non-prime classifications to have no cross-products, it's just not immediately guaranteed.


not sure how accurate the following is, searching for keywords from the below only seems to give you hits from web pages promiting Feng Shui:

"Feng Shui is one of the Five Arts of Chinese Metaphysics, classified as Physiognomy (observation of appearances through formulas and calculations)." -- [21]

" The Chinese divide Chinese Metaphysics into five main subjects of study call Wu Shu (五 术) or the Five Arts. They are Mountain 山, Medicine 医, Life 命, Divination 扑 and Appearance 相.

The first of the Five Arts are Mountain (Shan). It is also called the Philosophical art as it includes the thoughts and teachings of well known ancient Chinese philosophers on the study of man and nature. Other study that fall under this art includes diet, physical health, martial arts, meditation and self-healing. Examples include Qi Gong and Tai Chi Chuan.

The Second art is Medicine (Yi) which deals with healing. It includes all form of traditional Chinese medicine including acupuncture and medical prescriptions.

The third is Divination (Pu) or Prediction and the Yi Qing feature prominently in this study. Popular study in this art includes Tai Yi, Da Liu Re, Qi Men and Dua Yi. They rely on numerical analysis to reveal one’s part and future.

The fourth is Destiny Analysis (Ming) or fate. It includes horoscope studies, Ba Zi (Four Pillars or Eight Characters) and Zi Wei Dou Shu Purple Star Astrology).

The fifth and last study is Appearance/physiognomy (Xiang) which refers to the study of forms. It includes between others, Yin (burial) and Yang Feng Shui (form of the living environment), Palmistry (form of the hand) and Face Reading (form of the face) and Naming. " --

" Chinese Metaphysics (中华玄学) are divided into 5 subjects of studies, call Wu Shu (五 术) or the Five Arts. They are:

1) Mountain 山 (Also known as The Alchemy of Immortals (仙) 2) Medicine 医 3) Life 命 4) Appearance 相 5) Divination 扑

1) Mountain (山 - Shan) / The Alchemy of Immortals (仙) It is known as "Mountain (山 - Shan)" - meaning Knowledge and Skills are learned and trained in the Mountains, because in ancient time, a person need to go up to the mountain to receive such knowledge. Studies that fall under this art includes diet, physical health, martial arts, meditation and self-healing. Taoist Sorcery, Taoist Rituals and Taoist Talismans belongs to Mountain (山) / The Alchemy of Immortals (仙).

Important!: Many people (Chinese folks included) thought "Mountain (山 - Shan)" of Chinese Metaphysics (中华玄学) means the "The Study of shape and formations of Mountains" and then mistook Feng Shui (风水) belongs to "Study Of Mountain (山 - Shan)", which is wrong. "Mountain (山 - Shan)" of Chinese Metaphysics (中华玄学) means "Knowledge and Skills are learned and trained in the Mountains (in ancient China)". Feng Shui (风水) belongs to the Study of Appearance/Physiognomy (相 - Xiang).

2) Medicine (医 - Yi) Art Of Healing. It includes all form of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), including acupuncture (鍼灸) , Medical Prescriptions (方剂) and Soul Healing(灵治).

3) Life (命 - Ming) The Chinese Art of Destiny Analysis (命) or fate. It includes Four Pillars and Eight Characters (子平八字 - Zi Ping Ba Zi ) and Purple Star Astrology (紫微斗数 - Zi Wei Dou Shu).

4) Appearance (相 - Xiang) The Chinese Study of Appearance/Physiognomy (相) which refers to the study of forms, meaning the study of good or bad of a form. The 2 well-known examples are Palmistry (Lines on the Palm of Hands) and Face Reading / Mole Reading. Feng Shui belongs to the study of Forms (相 - Xiang) , including Feng Shi for Burial (阴宅 - Yin Zhai) and Feng Shui for the living environment (阳宅 - Yang Zhai). The study of Characters of Chinese Names of a person is also belong to The Chinese Study of Appearance (相 - Xiang).

5) Divination (扑 - Pu) Prediction and the Yi Jing (易经 - I Ching) feature prominently in this study. Popular study in this art includes Tai Yi (太易), Da Liu Ren (大六壬), Qi Men Dun Jia(奇门盾甲). They rely on numerical analysis to reveal one’s path and future. " --

" In order to understand WHAT really Feng Shui is, one needs to refer to the old manuscripts. The Chinese have five categories of study in the world of Chinese Metaphysics - (known as the Chinese Five Arts - Wu Shu), Feng Shui is classified under physiognomy of the living environment. The Five Arts are Mountain, Medical, Divination, Destiny and Physiognomy. Physiognomy refers to observation of appearances through formulas and calculations in order to assess the potential and outcome of a person, or in this case, the out come of a person living in a certain property. " ---


" There are two possible sources of bagua. The first is from traditional Yin and Yang philosophy. The interrelationships of this philosophy has been attributed to Fuxi in the following way:

    兩儀生四象: 即少陰、太陰、少陽、太陽、
    The Limitless (Wuji) produces the delimited, and this is the Absolute (Taiji)
    The Taiji produces two forms, named yin and yang
    The two forms produce four phenomena, named lesser yin, great yin (taiyin also means the Moon), lesser yang, great yang (taiyang also means the Sun).
    The four phenomena act on the eight trigrams (bagua), eight eights are sixty-four hexagrams.

Another philosophical description of the source is the following, attributed to King Wen of Zhou Dynasty: "When the world began, there was heaven and earth. Heaven mated with the earth and gave birth to everything in the world. Heaven is Qian-gua, and the Earth is Kun-gua. The remaining six gua are their sons and daughters".

The trigrams are related to the five elements of wu xing, used by feng shui practitioners and in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Those five elements are wood, fire, earth, metal, and water. The Water (Kan) and Fire (Li) trigrams correspond directly with the Water and Fire elements. The element of Earth corresponds with both the trigrams of Earth (Kun) and Mountain (Gen). The element of Wood corresponds with the trigrams of Wind (Xun) (as a gentle but inexorable force that can erode and penetrate stone) and Thunder (Zhen). The element of Metal corresponds with the trigrams of Heaven (Qian) and Lake (Dui).

There are eight possible trigrams (八卦 bāguà):

"Trigram Figure Binary Value Name Translation: Wilhelm[5] Image in Nature (pp.l-li) Direction (p. 269) Family Relationship (p. 274) Body Part (p. 274) Attribute (p. 273) Stage/ State (pp.l-li) Animal (p. 273) 1 ☰ 111 乾 qián the Creative, Force heaven, sky 天 northwest father head strong creative 馬 horse 2 ☱ 110 兌 duì the Joyous, Open lake 澤 west third daughter mouth pleasure tranquil (complete devotion) 羊 sheep, goat 3 ☲ 101 離 lí the Clinging, Radiance fire 火 south second daughter eye light-giving, dependence clinging, clarity, adaptable 雉 pheasant 4 ☳ 100 震 zhèn the Arousing, Shake thunder 雷 east first son foot inciting movement initiative 龍 dragon 5 ☴ 011 巽 xùn the Gentle, Ground wind 風 southeast first daughter thigh penetrating gentle entrance 雞 fowl 6 ☵ 010 坎 kǎn the Abysmal, Gorge water 水 north second son ear dangerous in-motion 豕 pig 7 ☶ 001 艮 gèn Keeping Still, Bound mountain 山 northeast third son hand resting, stand-still completion 狗 wolf, dog 8 ☷ 000 坤 kūn the Receptive, Field earth 地 southwest mother belly devoted, yielding receptive 牛 cow


卦名 Name 自然 Nature 季节 Season 性情 Personality 家族 Family 方位 Direction 意義 Meaning 乾 Qián 天 Sky (Heaven) Summer Creative 父 Father 南 South Expansive energy, the sky. For further information, see tiān. 巽 Xùn 風 Wind Summer Gentle 長女 Eldest Daughter 西南 Southwest Gentle penetration, flexibility. 坎 Kǎn 水 Water Autumn Abysmal 中男 Middle Son 西 West Danger, rapid rivers, the abyss, the moon. 艮 Gèn 山 Mountain Autumn Still 少男 Youngest Son 西北 Northwest Stillness, immovability. 坤 Kūn 地 Earth Winter Receptive 母 Mother 北 North Receptive energy, that which yields. For further information, see dì. 震 Zhèn 雷 Thunder Winter Arousing 長男 Eldest Son 東北 Northeast Excitation, revolution, division. 離 Lí 火 Fire Spring Clinging 中女 Middle Daughter 東 East Rapid movement, radiance, the sun. 兌 Duì 澤 Lake Spring Joyous 少女 Youngest Daughter 東南 Southeast Joy, satisfaction, stagnation.


bagua eight aspirations [22]:


more on wu xing:


thirty-six stratagems (not really a classification, but i dont know where else to put this right now and i want to remember it)


the dewey decimal system

more details:

some alternatives:


ancient chinese:

notes from on previous:

" Six Arts:


Lyrics and Rhapsodies:

Military Texts:

Divination and Numbers:

Formulae and Techniques:

Table 1. The classification of the Seven Epitomes. "

" We are thus able to see the 6 main classes (i.e., 6 epitomes, with an extra epitome titled the “Collective Epitome” that is not a class) ... The exact nature of the Collective Epitome is unknown. Most scholars believe that it is a collection of the Preface and introductory summaries of individual epitomes and their subdivisions. In the Han Treatise, these segments are scattered. "

" It needs to be pointed out that Liu Xin never claimed his scheme to be exhaustive in its coverage. In effect, the imperial library had a clear-cut scope in collection—the original collation project in its commission only dealt with six categories of texts. Legal codes, for example, were entirely left out though they existed in large quantities and were especially important for governing at the time (Hulsewé, 1986). "

" Texts on elementary mathematics, however, seem to be intentionally excluded from the Seven Epitomes. For a more detailed discussion, see Lee (in press). "

" We suggest that the scheme in question comprises three ranked dichotomies, the impetus of which is ru classicism (commonly known as Confucianism, another reductionist translation, in the West). The first dichotomy is the one between the learning of dao (i.e., the Way [of living and thinking]) and the learning of qi (i.e., the vessel or practical skills). Texts in the “dao learning” camp are further dichotomized into the Classics (i.e., the six ancient texts held in the highest regards by classicists) and the non Classics. In the Classics category, interpretations of and commentaries on the Classics, two other important classicist texts and textbooks for foundational learning (e.g., texts to equip beginning students with necessary literary skills for tackling the Classics) also belong. The non Classics category then diverges into those that are expository and those not expository—thus the third dichotomy. Being less important, the “qi learning” camp includes technical texts connected to three types of government offices (those in charge of military, divination and healing) that became the three lesser categories. "

"A couple of advanced mathematical texts, for example, are in the subclass of Chronology, Epitome of Divination and Numbers, because they are a tool used in calendar making.4 Nisbett (2003) calls this kind of relationship in Chinese thinking “a thematic relationship”, contrasting it to a taxonomic relationship typical of western classification. Instances of thematic relationships are abundant in the Seven Epitomes. "

" This classicist overtone is no accident. After the short-lived first dynasty Qin (221-207 BCE), the Former Han (202 BCE-9 CE) was determined to make their empire last forever. Their empire-building efforts included intellectual control of which the institution of a literary canon was an indispensable part. The collation project that resulted in the creation of the imperial library and its catalog was intended to establish intellectual authority through an exertion of government control over writing and learning (Lewis, 1999). "


Dewey Decimal:

    000 – General works, Computer science and Information
    100 – Philosophy and psychology
    200 – Religion
    300 – Social sciences
    400 – Language
    500 – Pure Science
    600 – Technology
    700 – Arts & recreation
    800 – Literature
    900 – History & geography

my abridged list of stuff in there (from [23]:

Class 000 – Computer science, information & general works

000 Computer science, knowledge & systems

    000 Computer science, information & general works
    001 Knowledge
    002 The book
    003 Systems
    004 Computer science
    005 Computer programming, programs & data
    006 Special computer methods
    007 [Unassigned]
    008 [Unassigned]
    009 [Unassigned]

010 Bibliographies 020 Library & information sciences

    020 Library & information sciences
    021 Relationships of libraries, archives, information centers
    022 Administration of physical plant
    023 Personnel management (Human resource management)
    024 No longer used—formerly Regulations for readers
    025 Operations of libraries, archives, information centers
    026 Libraries, archives, information centers devoted to specific subjects
    027 General libraries, archives, information centers
    028 Reading & use of other information media
    029 No longer used—formerly Literary methods

030 Encyclopedias & books of facts 040 Unassigned (formerly Biographies) 050 Magazines, journals & serials 060 Associations, organizations & museums 070 News media, journalism & publishing 080 Quotations 090 Manuscripts & rare books

    100 Philosophy
        100 Philosophy, parapsychology & occultism, psychology
        101 Theory of philosophy
        102 Miscellany of philosophy
        103 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances of philosophy
        104 No longer used—formerly Essays
        105 Serial publications of philosophy
        106 Organizations & management of philosophy
        107 Education, research, related topics of philosophy
        108 Groups of people
        109 History & collected biography
    110 Metaphysics
        110 Metaphysics
        111 Ontology
        112 No longer used—formerly Methodology
        113 Cosmology (Philosophy of nature)
        114 Space
        115 Time
        116 Change
        117 Structure
        118 Force and energy
        119 Number and quantity
    120 Epistemology
        120 Epistemology, causation, and humankind
        121 Epistemology (Theory of knowledge)
        122 Causation
        123 Determinism and indeterminism
        124 Teleology
        125 No longer used—formerly Infinity
        126 The self
        127 The unconscious & the subconscious
        128 Humankind
        129 Origin & destiny of individual souls
    130 Parapsychology & occultism
    140 Philosophical schools of thought
        140 Specific philosophical schools and viewpoints
        141 Idealism & related systems & doctrines
        142 Critical philosophy
        143 Bergsonism & intuitionism
        144 Humanism & related systems & doctrines
        145 Sensationalism
        146 Naturalism & related systems & doctrines
        147 Pantheism & related systems & doctrines
        148 Dogmatism, eclecticism, liberalism, syncretism, & traditionalism
        149 Other philosophical systems & doctrines
    150 Psychology
        150 Psychology
        151 No longer used—formerly Intellect
        152 Sensory perception, movement, emotions, & physiological drives
        153 Conscious mental processes & intelligence
        154 Subconscious & altered states & processes
        155 Differential & developmental psychology
        156 Comparative psychology
        157 No longer used—formerly Emotions
        158 Applied psychology
        159 No longer used—formerly Will
    160 Philosophical logic
        160 Philosophical logic
        161 Induction
        162 Deduction
        163 Not assigned or no longer used
        164 Not assigned or no longer used
        165 Fallacies & sources of error
        166 Syllogisms
        167 Hypotheses
        168 Argument & persuasion
        169 Analogy
    170 Ethics
    180 Ancient, medieval, & Eastern philosophy
        180 Ancient, medieval, eastern philosophy
        181 Eastern philosophy
        182 Pre-Socratic Greek philosophies
        183 Sophistic, Socratic, related Greek philosophies
        184 Platonic philosophy
        185 Aristotelian philosophy
        186 Skeptic & Neoplatonic philosophies
        187 Epicurean philosophy
        188 Stoic philosophy
        189 Medieval Western philosophy
    190 Modern Western philosophy (19th-century, 20th-century)

Class 200 – Religion

    200 Religion
        200 Religion
        201 Religious mythology, general classes of religion, interreligious relations and attitudes, social theology
        202 Doctrines
        203 Public worship and other practices
        204 Religious experience, life, practice
        205 Religious ethics
        206 Leaders and organization
        207 Missions and religious education
        208 Sources
        209 Sects and reform movements
    210 Philosophy & theory of religion
        210 Philosophy & theory of religion
        211 Concepts of God
        212 Existence, ways of knowing God, attributes of God
        213 Creation
        214 Theodicy
        215 Science & religion
        216 No longer used—formerly Evil
        217 No longer used—formerly Prayer
        218 Humankind
        219 No longer used—formerly Analogies
    220 The Bible
    230 Christianity
    240 Christian practice & observance
    250 Christian pastoral practice & religious orders
    260 Christian organization, social work, & worship
    270 History of Christianity
    280 Christian denominations
    290 Other religions
        290 Other religions
        291 No longer used-formerly Comparative religion
        292 Classical religion (Greek & Roman religion)
        293 Germanic religion
        294 Religions of Indic origin
        295 Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism, Parseeism)
        296 Judaism
        297 Islam, Bábism & Bahá'í Faith
        298 No longer used—formerly Mormonism
        299 Religions not provided for elsewhere

Class 300 – Social sciences

    300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology
        300 Social sciences
        301 Sociology & anthropology
        302 Social interaction
        303 Social processes
        304 Factors affecting social behavior
        305 Groups of people
        306 Culture & institutions
        307 Communities
        308 No longer used—formerly Polygraphy
        309 No longer used—formerly History of sociology
    310 Statistics
    320 Political science
        320 Political science (Politics & government)
        321 Systems of governments & states
        322 Relation of state to organized groups & their members
        323 Civil & political rights
        324 The political process
        325 International migration & colonization
        326 Slavery & emancipation
        327 International relations
        328 The legislative process
        329 Not assigned or no longer used
    330 Economics
        330 Economics
        331 Labor economics
        332 Financial economics
        333 Economics of land & energy
        334 Cooperatives
        335 Socialism & related systems
        336 Public finance
        337 International economics
        338 Production
        339 Macroeconomics & related topics
    340 Law
        340 Law
        341 Law of nations
        342 Constitutional & administrative law
        343 Military, defense, public property, public finance, tax, commerce (trade), industrial law
        344 Labor, social service, education, cultural law
        345 Criminal law
        346 Private law
        347 Procedure & courts
        348 Laws, regulations, cases
        349 Law of specific jurisdictions, areas, socioeconomic regions, regional intergovernmental organizations
    350 Public administration & military science
        350 Public administration & military science
        351 Public administration
        352 General considerations of public administration
        353 Specific fields of public administration
        354 Public administration of economy & environment
        355 Military science
        356 Foot forces & warfare
        357 Mounted forces & warfare
        358 Air & other specialized forces & warfare; engineering & related services
        359 Sea forces & warfare
    360 Social problems & social services
    370 Education
        370 Education
        371 Schools & their activities; special education
        372 Primary education (elementary education)
        373 Secondary education
        374 Adult education
        375 Curricula
        376 No longer used—formerly Education of women
        377 No longer used—formerly Ethical education
        378 Higher education (Tertiary education)
        379 Public policy issues in education
    380 Commerce, communications, & transportation
    390 Customs, etiquette, & folklore
        390 Customs, etiquette, folklore
        391 Costume & personal appearance
        392 Customs of life cycle & domestic life
        393 Death customs
        394 General customs
        395 Etiquette (Manners)
        396 No longer used—formerly Women's position and treatment
        397 No longer used—formerly outcast studies
        398 Folklore
        399 Customs of war & diplomacy

Class 400 – Language

    400 Language
    410 Linguistics
    420 English & Old English languages
    430 German & related languages
    440 French & related languages
    450 Italian, Romanian, & related languages
    460 Spanish, Portuguese, Galician
    470 Latin & Italic languages
    480 Classical & modern Greek languages
    490 Other languages
        490 Other languages
        491 East Indo-European & Celtic languages
        492 Afro-Asiatic languages
        493 Non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic languages
        494 Altic, Uralic, Hyperborean, Dravidian languages, miscellaneous languages of south Asia
        495 Languages of East & Southeast Asia
        496 African languages
        497 North American native languages
        498 South American native languages
        499 Non-Austronesian languages of Oceania, Austronesian languages, miscellaneous languages

Class 500 – Science

    500 Science
        500 Natural sciences & mathematics
        501 Philosophy & theory
        502 Miscellany
        503 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances
        504 Not assigned or no longer used
        505 Serial publications
        506 Organizations & management
        507 Education, research, related topics
        508 Natural history
        509 History, geographic treatment, biography
    510 Mathematics
        510 Mathematics
        511 General principles of mathematics
        512 Algebra
        513 Arithmetic
        514 Topology
        515 Analysis
        516 Geometry
        517 Not assigned or no longer used
        518 Numerical analysis
        519 Probabilities & applied mathematics
    520 Astronomy
        520 Astronomy & allied sciences
        521 Celestial mechanics
        522 Techniques, procedures, apparatus, equipment, materials
        523 Specific celestial bodies & phenomena
        524 Not assigned or no longer used
        525 Earth (Astronomical geography)
        526 Mathematical geography
        527 Celestial navigation
        528 Ephemerides
        529 Chronology
    530 Physics
        530 Physics
        531 Classical mechanics
        532 Fluid mechanics
        533 Pneumatics (Gas mechanics)
        534 Sound & related vibrations
        535 Light & related radiation
        536 Heat
        537 Electricity & electronics
        538 Magnetism
        539 Modern physics
    540 Chemistry
        540 Chemistry & allied sciences
        541 Physical chemistry
        542 Techniques, procedures, apparatus, equipment, materials
        543 Analytical chemistry
        544 No longer used-formerly Qualitative analysis
        545 No longer used-formerly Quantitative analysis
        546 Inorganic chemistry
        547 Organic chemistry
        548 Crystallography
        549 Mineralogy
    550 Earth sciences & geology
    560 Fossils & prehistoric life
    570 Biology
        570 Biology
        571 Physiology & related subjects
        572 Biochemistry
        573 Specific physiological systems in animals, regional histology & physiology in animals
        574 Not assigned or no longer used
        575 Specific parts of & physiological systems in plants
        576 Genetics and evolution
        577 Ecology
        578 Natural history of organisms & related subjects
        579 Natural history of microorganisms, fungi, algae
    580 Plants
    590 Animals (Zoology)

Class 600 – Technology

    600 Technology
        600 Technology (Applied sciences)
        601 Philosophy & theory
        602 Miscellany
        603 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances
        604 Technical drawing, hazardous materials technology; groups of people
        605 Serial publications
        606 Organizations
        607 Education, research, related topics
        608 Patents
        609 History, geographic treatment, biography
    610 Medicine & health
        610 Medicine & health
        611 Human anatomy, cytology, histology
        612 Human physiology
        613 Personal health & safety
        614 Forensic medicine; incidence of injuries, wounds, disease; public preventive medicine
        615 Pharmacology and therapeutics
        616 Diseases
        617 Surgery, regional medicine, dentistry, ophthalmology, otology, audiology
        618 Gynecology, obstetrics, pediatrics, geriatrics
        619 No longer used-formerly Experimental medicine
    620 Engineering
        620 Engineering & Applied operations
        621 Applied physics
        622 Mining & related operations
        623 Military & nautical engineering
        624 Civil engineering
        625 Engineering of railroads, roads
        626 Not assigned or no longer used
        627 Hydraulic engineering
        628 Sanitary engineering
        629 Other branches of engineering
    630 Agriculture
        630 Agriculture & related technologies
        631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment, materials
        632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests
        633 Field & plantation crops
        634 Orchards, fruits, forestry
        635 Garden crops (Horticulture)
        636 Animal husbandry
        637 Processing dairy & related products
        638 Insect culture
        639 Hunting, fishing, conservation, related technologies
    640 Home & family management
        640 Home & family management
        641 Food & drink
        642 Meals & table service
        643 Housing & household equipment
        644 Household utilities
        645 Household furnishings
        646 Sewing, clothing, management of personal and family life
        647 Management of public households (Institutional housekeeping)
        648 Housekeeping
        649 Child rearing; home care of people with disabilities & illnesses
    650 Management & public relations
        650 Management & auxiliary services
        651 Office services
        652 Processes of written communication
        653 Shorthand
        654 Not assigned or no longer used
        655 Not assigned or no longer used
        656 Not assigned or no longer used
        657 Accounting
        658 General management
        659 Advertising & public relations
    660 Chemical engineering
        660 Chemical engineering & related technologies
        661 Technology of industrial chemicals
        662 Technology of explosives, fuels, related products
        663 Beverage technology
        664 Food technology
        665 Technology of industrial oils, fats, waxes, gases
        666 Ceramic & allied technologies
        667 Cleaning, color, coating, related technologies
        668 Technology of other organic products
        669 Metallurgy
    670 Manufacturing
        670 Manufacturing
        671 Metalworking processes & primary metal products
        672 Iron, steel, other iron alloys
        673 Nonferrous metals
        674 Lumber processing, wood products, cork
        675 Leather & fur processing
        676 Pulp & paper technology
        677 Textiles
        678 Elastomers & elastomer products
        679 Other products of specific kinds of materials
    680 Manufacture for specific uses
        680 Manufacture of products for specific uses
        681 Precision instruments & other devices
        682 Small forge work (Blacksmithing)
        683 Hardware & household appliances
        684 Furnishings & home workshops
        685 Leather & fur goods, & related products
        686 Printing & related activities
        687 Clothing & accessories
        688 Other final products, & packaging technology
        689 Not assigned or no longer used
    690 Construction of buildings
        690 Construction of buildings
        691 Building materials
        692 Auxiliary construction practices
        693 Construction in specific types of materials & for specific purposes
        694 Wood construction
        695 Roof covering
        696 Utilities
        697 Heating, ventilating, air-conditioning engineering
        698 Detail finishing
        699 Not assigned or no longer used

Class 700 – Arts & recreation

    700 Arts
        700 The Arts
        701 Philosophy & theory of fine & decorative arts
        702 Miscellany of fine & decorative arts
        703 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances of fine & decorative arts
        704 Special topics in fine & decorative arts
        705 Serial publications of fine & decorative arts
        706 Organizations & management of fine & decorative arts
        707 Education, research, related topics of fine & decorative arts
        708 Galleries, museums, private collections of fine & decorative arts
        709 History, geographic treatment, biography
    710 Area planning & landscape architecture
    720 Architecture
    730 Sculpture, ceramics, & metalwork
    740 Graphic arts & decorative arts
    750 Painting
        750 Painting & paintings
        751 Techniques, procedures, apparatus, equipment, materials, forms
        752 Color
        753 Symbolism, allegory, mythology, legend
        754 Genre paintings
        755 Religion
        756 Not assigned or no longer used
        757 Human figures
        758 Nature, architectural subjects & cityscapes, other specific subjects
        759 History, geographic treatment, biography
    760 Printmaking & prints
    770 Photography, computer art, film, video
    780 Music
    790 Sports, games & entertainment
        790 Recreational & performing arts
        791 Public performances
        792 Stage presentations
        793 Indoor games & amusements
        794 Indoor games of skill
        795 Games of chance
        796 Athletic & outdoor sports & games
        797 Aquatic & air sports
        798 Equestrian sports & animal racing
        799 Fishing, hunting, shooting

Class 800 – Literature

    800 Literature, rhetoric & criticism
        800 Literature (Belles-lettres) & rhetoric
        801 Philosophy & theory
        802 Miscellany
        803 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances
        804 Not assigned or no longer used
        805 Serial publications
        806 Organizations & management
        807 Education, research, related topics
        808 Rhetoric & collections of literary texts from more than two literatures
        809 History, description, critical appraisal of more than two literatures
    810 American literature in English
    820 English & Old English literatures
    830 German & related literatures
    840 French & related literatures
    850 Italian, Romanian, & related literatures
    860 Spanish, Portuguese, Galician literatures
    870 Latin & Italic literatures
    880 Classical & modern Greek literatures
    890 Other literatures

Class 900 – History & geography

    900 History
        900 History, geography, & auxiliary disciplines
        901 Philosophy & theory of history
        902 Miscellany of history
        903 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances of history
        904 Collected accounts of events
        905 Serial publications of history
        906 Organizations & management of history
        907 Education, research, related topics of history
        908 History with respect to groups of people
        909 World history
    910 Geography & travel
    920 Biography & genealogy
    930 History of ancient world (to ca. 499)
        930 History of ancient world to ca. 499
        931 China to 420
        932 Egypt to 640
        933 Palestine to 70
        934 South Asia to 647
        935 Mesopotamia to 637 & Iranian Plateau to 637
        936 Europe north & west of Italian Peninsula to ca. 499
        937 Italian Peninsula to 476 & adjacent territories to 476
        938 Greece to 323
        939 Other parts of ancient world
    940 History of Europe
    950 History of Asia
    960 History of Africa
        960 History of Africa
        961 Tunisia & Libya
        962 Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan
        963 Ethiopia & Eritrea
        964 Morocco, Ceuta, Melilla Western Sahara, Canary Islands
        965 Algeria
        966 West Africa & offshore islands
        967 Central Africa & offshore islands
        968 Republic of South Africa & neighboring southern African countries
        969 South Indian Ocean islands
    970 History of North America
    980 History of South America
    990 History of other areas


the 7 liberal arts as classes


the happiness factors as classes:


World Happiness Report, published by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network:

The components of happiness:



customers: meets expectations, meets desires, meets unrecognized needs employees: money, recogntion, meaning investors: transaction alignment, relationship alignment, legacy

(from [25])


discuss faceted classification

(and heterarchy)


dept of lists / organizing personality as a class


" Citing linguistic theory of the late 20th century, Graham (1989) maintains that the tendency of Chinese thought, as demonstrated in the Chinese language, is to think in terms of whole/part rather than class/member relationships. That is, the parts of a whole are considered in terms of their relationships with the whole, not their similarities to/differences from one another. In the above quote, all the masters are likened to be the sage ruler’s limbs. It is not to say that the sage ruler has dozens of limbs anatomically. Instead, a limb is only an analogy of a part and the masters’ writings are all simply parts of the supreme wisdom regardless of whether they share a common set of characteristics " -- Organizing Knowledge the Chinese Way, by Hur-Li Lee.


integer 3:

3-d is needed to form nonplanar graphs without intersections


perhaps talk about



ontologies (eg in [27] )


or is this book only about small integers and their corresponding classification systems?



    ► Agriculture‎ (43 C, 189 P)
    ► Architecture‎ (41 C, 91 P)
    ► Arts‎ (36 C, 71 P)
    ► Behavior‎ (24 C, 50 P)
    ► Chronology‎ (20 C, 52 P)
    ► Creativity‎ (18 C, 63 P)
    ► Culture‎ (46 C, 62 P)
    ► Education‎ (59 C, 192 P)
    ► Employment‎ (26 C, 238 P)
    ► Energy‎ (29 C, 41 P)
    ► Environment‎ (47 C, 75 P)
    ► Geography‎ (28 C, 79 P)
    ► Goods‎ (6 C, 47 P)
    ► Government‎ (66 C, 112 P)
    ► Health‎ (41 C, 4 P)
    ► History‎ (34 C, 35 P)
    ► Humanities‎ (33 C, 79 P)
    ► Humans‎ (25 C, 41 P)
    ► Industry‎ (34 C, 101 P)
    ► Information‎ (25 C, 33 P)
    ► Knowledge‎ (30 C, 94 P)
    ► Language‎ (26 C, 69 P)
    ► Law‎ (27 C, 77 P)
    ► Mathematics‎ (19 C, 9 P)
    ► Medicine‎ (25 C, 18 P)
    ► Mind‎ (37 C, 18 P)
    ► Nature‎ (23 C, 9 P)
    ► Objects‎ (7 C, 2 P)
    ► People‎ (14 C, 3 P)
    ► Politics‎ (36 C, 51 P)
    ► Science‎ (38 C, 26 P)
    ► Sports‎ (37 C, 12 P)
    ► Structure‎ (24 C, 13 P)
    ► Systems‎ (7 C, 23 P)
    ► Technology‎ (51 C, 135 P)
    ► Telecommunications‎ (41 C, 80 P)
    ► Universe‎ (10 C, 25 P)
    ► World‎ (13 C, 12 P)

    ► Concepts‎ (25 C, 38 P)
    ► Life‎ (17 C, 21 P)
    ► Matter‎ (15 C, 19 P)
    ► Society‎ (60 C, 31 P)
    ▼ Concepts‎ (25 C, 38 P)
    ► Concepts by field‎ (28 C)
    ► Abstract object theory‎ (3 P)
    ► Abstraction‎ (17 C, 40 P)
    ► Belief‎ (22 C, 72 P)
    ► Conceptions of self‎ (5 C, 58 P)
    ► Conceptual distinctions‎ (2 C, 18 P)
    ► Conceptual models‎ (10 C, 50 P)
    ► Conceptual systems‎ (15 C, 14 P)
    ► Conceptualism‎ (1 C, 7 P)
    ► Fiction‎ (31 C, 117 P)
    ► Fictional objects‎ (19 C, 22 P)
    ► Impossible objects‎ (14 P)
    ► Information‎ (25 C, 33 P)
    ► Memes‎ (6 C, 23 P)
    ► Metaphors‎ (5 C, 63 P)
    ► Principles‎ (11 C, 77 P)
    ► Quantity‎ (4 C, 2 P)
    ► Statements‎ (15 C, 42 P)
    ► Structure‎ (24 C, 13 P)
    ► Symbols‎ (46 C, 122 P)
    ► Systems‎ (7 C, 23 P)
    ► Theories‎ (9 C, 50 P)
    ► Thought‎ (14 C, 71 P)
    ► Value‎ (8 C, 67 P)
    ► Words‎ (16 C, 13 P, 1 F)
    ▼ Life‎ (17 C, 21 P)
    ► Artificial life‎ (6 C, 51 P)
    ► Behavior‎ (24 C, 50 P)
    ► Biology‎ (29 C, 94 P)
    ► Biota‎ (11 C, 1 P)
    ► Births by year‎ (29 C)
    ► Borderline life‎ (3 C, 18 P)
    ► Death‎ (35 C, 51 P)
    ► Extraterrestrial life‎ (4 C, 51 P)
    ► Fictional life forms‎ (12 C, 8 P)
    ► Hypothetical life forms‎ (1 C, 12 P)
    ► Life in space‎ (3 C, 8 P)
    ► Organisms‎ (26 C, 11 P)
    ► Prehistoric life‎ (11 C, 43 P)
    ► Reproduction‎ (9 C, 61 P)
    ► Speculative evolution‎ (9 P)
    ► Taxonomic categories‎ (15 C, 9 P)
    ► Tree of life (biology)‎ (3 C, 2 P)
    ▼ Matter‎ (15 C, 19 P)
    ► Phases of matter‎ (5 C, 61 P)
    ► Antimatter‎ (21 P)
    ► Atoms‎ (3 C, 22 P, 1 F)
    ► Chemical elements‎ (130 C, 126 P)
    ► Condensed matter‎ (2 C)
    ► Exotic matter‎ (1 C, 26 P)
    ► Ions‎ (6 C, 34 P)
    ► Mass‎ (6 C, 66 P)
    ► Materials‎ (59 C, 103 P)
    ► Molecules‎ (8 C, 18 P)
    ► Physical objects‎ (15 C, 7 P)
    ► Soft matter‎ (9 C, 40 P)
    ► Solids‎ (6 C, 4 P)
    ► Subatomic particles‎ (10 C, 28 P)
    ► Vacuum‎ (4 C, 32 P)
    ▼ Society‎ (60 C, 31 P)
    ► Society by ethnicity‎ (7 C)
    ► Society by nationality‎ (261 C)
    ► Society by location‎ (3 C)
    ► Age and society‎ (8 C, 21 P)
    ► Agriculture in society‎ (9 C, 19 P)
    ► Autonomous space‎ (1 C, 2 P)
    ► Bibliographies of subcultures‎ (10 P)
    ► Business‎ (61 C, 124 P)
    ► Social change‎ (8 C, 48 P)
    ► Communication‎ (22 C, 241 P)
    ► Community‎ (7 C, 55 P)
    ► Competition‎ (5 C, 29 P)
    ► Conflict in society‎ (10 C, 7 P)
    ► Culture‎ (46 C, 62 P)
    ► Disability‎ (25 C, 109 P)
    ► Economies‎ (8 C, 45 P)
    ► Employment‎ (26 C, 238 P)
    ► Environment‎ (47 C, 75 P)
    ► Environment and society‎ (20 C, 31 P)
    ► Ethnicity‎ (21 C, 35 P)
    ► Feminism and society‎ (9 C, 47 P)
    ► Society in fiction‎ (3 C)
    ► Fictional society‎ (10 C, 2 P)
    ► Group processes‎ (10 C, 121 P)
    ► Social groups‎ (24 C, 151 P)
    ► Health‎ (41 C, 4 P)
    ► History‎ (34 C, 35 P)
    ► Social history‎ (21 C, 47 P)
    ► Home‎ (21 C, 30 P)
    ► Infrastructure‎ (24 C, 30 P)
    ► Social institutions‎ (15 C, 21 P)
    ► International relations‎ (51 C, 185 P)
    ► Interpersonal relationships‎ (18 C, 184 P)
    ► Judiciaries‎ (97 C, 94 P)
    ► Society-related lists‎ (38 C, 64 P)
    ► Mass media‎ (32 C, 57 P)
    ► Social media‎ (9 C, 86 P)
    ► Medicine in society‎ (15 C, 9 P)
    ► Movements‎ (9 C, 5 P)
    ► Organizations‎ (40 C, 3 P)
    ► People‎ (14 C, 3 P)
    ► Social philosophy‎ (25 C, 246 P)
    ► Philosophy and society‎ (6 C, 2 P)
    ► Politics‎ (36 C, 51 P)
    ► Popularity‎ (4 C, 4 P)
    ► Public sphere‎ (37 C, 79 P)
    ► Race and society‎ (16 C, 21 P)
    ► Religion and society‎ (27 C, 26 P)
    ► Scares‎ (1 C, 11 P)
    ► Schools of thought‎ (5 C, 8 P)
    ► Science in society‎ (18 C, 42 P)
    ► Social sciences‎ (43 C, 189 P)
    ► Sexuality and society‎ (35 C, 106 P)
    ► Social concepts‎ (23 C, 68 P)
    ► Socioeconomics‎ (18 C, 125 P)
    ► Sociology‎ (33 C, 32 P)
    ► Technology in society‎ (14 C, 186 P)
    ► Water and society‎ (1 C, 11 P)
    ► Women in society‎ (1 C, 24 P)
    ► Wikipedia books on society‎ (8 C, 3 P)



my website notes hierarchy (not 'hierarchized' yet):

abstract/ career/ engineering/ games/ humanities/ local/ nonprofits/ politics/ skills/ strategy/ weird/ academia/ cog/ ethics/ grants/ hypotheticalConstitution/ math/ organization/ products/ social/ tech/ work/ art/ computer/ farFuture/ group/ improvementsToEnglish/ meta/ people/ rhetoric/ socialObservations/ trading/ writing/ books/ cs/ finance/ groupDecisionMaking/ institutionalDesign/ misc/ philosophy/ science/ society/ transport/ business/ econ/ fun/ guitar/ legal/ movies/ physics/ security/ socio/ trustMetrics/ camera/ education/ futurism/ history/ life/ music/ places/ simplicity/ specificBusinesses/ visual/

and a bunch of top-level stuff:

abstract academia art beliefMaintenance.txt books business camera canonicalTopicURLs.txt career characteristicsOfSomeFieldsOfStudy.txt codes_of_conduct.txt cog computer conLangs.txt consciousness.txt constitutionKernel.txt copyright.txt corporateGovernance.txt correlationAndIsomorphism.txt counterpartyRisk.txt court.txt coybowEthics.txt creativityVsOriginality.txt cs cults2.txt

  1. cults.txt# cults.txt DebateNetStack?.txt decisionMakingMarkets.txt demographics.txt design.txt disadvantagesOfLargeCorporations.txt distractions.txt dontPanic.txt dreams.txt dysonSphere.txt econ economics.txt education elementarySchool.txt engineering escapingSimulation.txt ethics experimentalCureOrganization.txt extraterrestrialCommunication.txt failureModesOfRevolutions.txt fallibilityAndThinkingForOneself.txt farFuture favoriteCourses.txt favoriteProducts.txt finance freeTrade.txt freezerDoor.txt fun futurism games gasket.txt gettingAlongOnTheInternet.txt godsGame.txt govmtInsurance.txt grants group groupDecisionMaking groupthink.txt guitar henryMillersElevenCommandments.txt heuristics.txt history homeEconomics.txt howDoWeGetToPlan9.txt humanErrorRate.txt humanities hypotheticalConstitution hypotheticalConstitutionSociety.txt importantQuestionsList.txt improvementsToEnglish informationOverload.txt information.txt institutionalDesign internetProfessional.txt internetSins.txt investing1.txt investing2.txt jfk.txt learningByTrialAndError.txt legal legalEquity.txt legislative_accountability.txt life listOfConstitutionalIdeas.txt livingCheaply.txt local management2.txt management.txt marcAndreessen.txt massAsynchronousOnlineParliamentaryProcedure.txt massAsynchronousOnlineParliamentaryProcedure.txt-old1 math meta mindControlTaxonomy.txt misc miscLinks.txt miscMindExperiences.txt mmorpg.txt moebius.txt monks.txt moralityIfThePastEndures.txt movies music negotiation.txt neoscholasticism.txt nonprofits nucleolusAsKernel.txt occult.txt oldindex2.txt oldindex.txt onlyListenToThingsThatPeopleWantToSay.txt ontologies.txt openSourceBusinessModels.txt
  2. openSourceProfProj.txt# openSourceProjectLifecycleVocabulary.txt opinionNet.txt organization organiz.txt parliamentaryProcedure2.txt parliamentaryProcedure.txt people philosophicalImportOfHardMindControl.txt philosophy phoneLatency.txt physics places placesToLive.txt politics postmodernism.txt pov.txt products
  3. programmingFaculty.txt# programming.txt pycheAdviceAsNeuralCommandSignals.txt qualitativeUnsupervisedLearning.txt randomTips.txt rationality.txt receivedWisdom.txt recommendersList.txt refLinks.txt researchAndApplication.txt rhetoric ripple.txt robertsRules.txt ruby.txt sanDiego.txt scenarioBase.txt science security senecaAndOCD.txt shineThroughSatire.txt shortThoughts.txt simpleDAV.txt simplicity singularity2.txt singularity.txt skills smallBusinessFinancialManagmentKitForDummies.txt social socialObservations society socio somePatterns.txt someStuffYouMightLikeToKnow.txt sousveillance.txt specificBusinesses stagnationInCommunities.txt standardsMaking.txt
  4. startupStuff.txt# statsHeuristics.txt strategy summary.txt survivalism.txt tech techieMisc.txt theMoralInstinct.txt trading transport tron.txt trustMetrics universalGenreSavvyGuide.txt virtualBeauty.txt visual voluntaryGovernment.txt voluntarySocialism.txt web.txt weird whyAreComputersHardToUse.txt work writing wuXingPlots.txt


Sci-fi Orion's Arm' Encyclopaedia Galactica top categories [28]:


"the innovator and leader, the performer and the idealist, the thief, the lover, the trickster, the saint, and the warrior" --


encyclopedia evaluation: four categories: coverage, accuracy, clarity, and recency --


"The one-volume Propædia is the first of three parts of the 15th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, the other two being the 12-volume Micropædia and the 17-volume Macropædia. The Propædia is intended as a topical organization of the Britannica's contents, complementary to the alphabetical organization of the other two parts. Introduced in 1974 with the 15th edition, the Propædia and Micropædia were intended to replace the Index of the 14th edition; however, after widespread criticism, the Britannica restored the Index as a two-volume set in 1985. The core of the Propædia is its Outline of Knowledge, which seeks to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge... Analogous to the Britannica itself, the Outline has three types of goals: epistemological, educational, and organizational.[2] In the epistemological arena, it seeks to provide a systematic, strictly hierarchical categorization of all possible human knowledge, a 20th-century analog of the Great Chain of Being and Francis Bacon's outline in Instauratio magna. In the educational arena, the Propædia lays out a course of study for each major discipline, a "roadmap" for a student who wishes to learn a field in its entirety. Finally, the Propædia serves as an expanded Table of Contents for the Micropædia and Macropædia; according to its designer, Mortimer J. Adler, all the articles of the Britannica were commissioned based on the Outline of Knowledge.[2]"


Propædia: 10 Parts, 41 Divisions, 167 Sections

10 parts:

10 Parts and 41 Divisions:

10 Parts and 41 Divisions and 167 sections:

Functional Design


more levels of detail are available at

"Division by division, from Part One through Part Nine, the outline covers what we know about the universe with the help of such sciences as physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology, meteorology, biology, medicine, psychology, anthropology, sociology, political science, economics, and technology. It also covers what we know as a result of systematic study and scholarship in such fields as education, law, the arts, religion, and Part Ten we are concerned with "knowledge become self-conscious"-with knowledge about knowledge-with our knowing turned, reflexively, back upon itself. Here it is not the knowable universe we are considering. It is, instead, the world of knowledge itself: its diverse disciplines, modes of inquiry, fields of scholarship or systematic study-in short, as the title of Part Ten indicates, the branches of knowledge. Whereas the other nine parts of the Outline of Knowledge cover what we know about the knowable universe, the outline of Part Ten covers what we know about the sciences or other disciplines whereby we know that which we know....What we know about the various sciences and the diverse disciplines that comprise the world of knowledge almost always includes an account of the methods of inquiry, verification or demonstration, and argument employed by scientists or scholars in a particular field of knowledge. " --

Volume I: Angel, Animal, Aristocracy, Art, Astronomy, Beauty, Being, Cause, Chance, Change, Citizen, Constitution, Courage, Custom and Convention, Definition, Democracy, Desire, Dialectic, Duty, Education, Element, Emotion, Eternity, Evolution, Experience, Family, Fate, Form, God, Good and Evil, Government, Habit, Happiness, History, Honor, Hypothesis, Idea, Immortality, Induction, Infinity, Judgment, Justice, Knowledge, Labor, Language, Law, Liberty, Life and Death, Logic, and Love.

Volume II: Man, Mathematics, Matter, Mechanics, Medicine, Memory and Imagination, Metaphysics, Mind, Monarchy, Nature, Necessity and Contingency, Oligarchy, One and Many, Opinion, Opposition,[13] Philosophy, Physics, Pleasure and Pain, Poetry, Principle, Progress, Prophecy, Prudence, Punishment, Quality, Quantity, Reasoning, Relation,[14] Religion, Revolution, Rhetoric, Same and Other, Science, Sense, Sign and Symbol, Sin, Slavery, Soul, Space, State, Temperance, Theology, Time, Truth, Tyranny and Despotism, Universal and Particular, Virtue and Vice, War and Peace, Wealth, Will, Wisdom, and World.


"In a succeeding book, Adler expressed his regret that the civil rights concept of Equality had not been selected. He attempted to rectify the omission with Six Great Ideas: Truth-Goodness-Beauty-Liberty-Equality-Justice (1981)."


"The Syntopicon consists of 102 chapters on the 102 Great Ideas. Each chapter is broken down into five distinct sections: the introduction, an outline of topics, references, cross-references, and additional readings. Adler penned all 102 introductions himself, giving a brief essay on the idea and its connection with the western canon. The outline of topics broke each idea down further, into as many as 15 sub-ideas. For instance, the first idea “Angel” is broken down into “Inferior deities or demi-gods in polytheistic religion,” “the philosophical consideration of pure intelligences, spiritual substances, supra-human persons” and seven other subtopics.[12] After this is the references section (for instance, “inferior deities or demi-gods in polytheistic religion” can be found in Homer, Sophocles, Shakespeare, Milton, Bacon, Locke, Hegel, Goethe and more). Cross-references follow, where similar ideas are listed. Last is the additional readings, in which one could seek out more on the subject of “Angel.”"



" the question about whether the various brands of knowledge can or should be arranged in a hierarchal order, in an ascending scale from lower to higher, or from less to more fundamental. In antiquity they were so arranged; as, for example, in Aristotle's ordering of the speculative sciences, beginning with physics and rising through mathematics to metaphysics as the science of first principles ciples and ultimate causes; and in his characterization to politics as the architectonic or controlling discipline in the sphere of practical knowledge, directive of human action So, too, in the Middle Ages, a hierarchical organization prevailed, in which theology was regarded as queen of the sciences, philosophy as its handmaiden, with all the other disciplines contributing their portions of knowledge for the greater glory of God and for the better understanding of man's destiny under Divine Providence. " --


" It details a strict, religious hierarchical structure of all matter and life, believed to have been decreed by God.

The chain starts from God and progresses downward to angels, demons (fallen/renegade angels), stars, moon, kings, princes, nobles, men, wild animals, domesticated animals, trees, other plants, precious stones, precious metals, and other minerals ...

God, and beneath him, the angels, both existing wholy in spirit form, sit at the top of the chain. Earthly flesh is fallible and ever-changing: mutable. Spirit, however, is unchanging and permanent. This sense of permanence is crucial to understanding this conception of reality. It is generally impossible to change the position of an object in the hierarchy. (One exception might be in the realm of alchemy, where alchemists attempted to transmute base elements, such as lead, into higher elements, either silver, or, more often, gold—- the highest element.)[3]

In the natural order, earth (rock) is at the bottom of the chain: this element possesses only the attribute of existence. Each link succeeding upward contains the positive attributes of the previous link and adds (at least) one other. Rocks, as above, possess only existence; the next link up, plants, possess life and existence. Animals add not only motion, but appetite as well.[3]

Man is both mortal flesh, as those below him, and also spirit as those above. In

... Amongst animals, subdivisions are equally apparent. At the top of the animals are wild beasts (such as lions), which were seen as superior as they defied training and domestication. Below them are domestic animals, further sub-divided so that useful animals (such as dogs and horses) are higher than docile creatures, such as sheep. Birds are also sub-divided, with eagles above pigeons, for example. Fish come below birds and are sub-divided between actual fish and other sea creatures. Below them come insects, with useful insects such as spiders and bees and attractive creatures such as ladybirds and dragonflies at the top, and unpleasant insects such as flies and beetles at the bottom. At the very bottom of the animal sector are snakes, which are relegated to this position as punishment for the serpent's actions in the Garden of Eden.

Below animals comes the division for plants, which is further sub-divided. Trees are at the top, with useful trees such as oaks at the top, and the traditionally demonic yew tree at the bottom. Food-producing plants such as cereals and vegetables are further sub-divided.

At the very bottom of the chain are minerals. At the top of this section are metals (further sub-divided, with gold at the top and lead at the bottom), followed by rocks (with granite and marble at the top), soil (sub-divided between nutrient-rich soil and low-quality types), sand, grit, dust, and, at the very bottom of the entire great chain, dirt.

The central concept of the chain of being is that everything imaginable fits into it somewhere, giving order and meaning to the universe.[


the spiritual attributes of reason, love, and imagination, like all spiritual beings


Humans were thought to possess divine powers such as reason, love, and imagination. Like angels, humans were spiritual beings, but unlike angels, human souls were "knotted" to a physical body. As such, they were subject to passions and physical sensations—pain, hunger, thirst, sexual desire—just like other animals lower on the Chain of the Being. They also possessed the powers of reproduction unlike the minerals and rocks lowest on the Chain of Being.....Humans also possessed sensory attributes: sight, touch, taste, hearing, and smell. Unlike angels, however, their sensory attributes were limited by physical organs. (They could only know things they could discern through the five senses.)


Animals, like humans higher on the Chain, were animated (capable of independent motion). They possessed physical appetites and sensory attributes, the number depending upon their position within the Chain of Being. They had limited intelligence and awareness of their surroundings. Unlike humans, they were thought to lack spiritual and mental attributes such as immortal souls and the ability to use logic and language. The primate of all animals (the "King of Beasts") was variously thought to be either the lion or the elephant. However, each subgroup of animals also had its own primate, an avatar superior in qualities of its type.


    Mammalian Primate: Lion or Elephant
        Wild Animals (large cats, etc.)
        "Useful" Domesticated Animals (horse, dog, etc.)
        "Tame" Domesticated Animals (housecat, etc.)
    Avian Primate: Eagle
        Birds of Prey (hawks, owls, etc.)
        Carrion Birds (vultures, crows)
        "Worm-eating" Birds (robin, etc.)
        "Seed-eating" Birds (sparrow, etc.)

Note that avian creatures, linked to the element of air, were considered superior to aquatic creatures linked to the element of water. Air naturally tended to rise and soar above the surface of water, and analogously, aerial creatures were placed higher in the Chain.

    Piscine Primate: Whale
        Aquatic Mammals
        Fish of various sizes and attributes

The chart would continue to descend through various reptiles, amphibians, and insects. The higher up the chart one went, the more noble, mobile, strong, and intelligent the creature in Renaissance belief. At the very bottom of the animal section, we find sessile creatures like the oysters, clams, and barnacles. Like the plants below them, these creatures lacked mobility, and were thought to lack various sensory organs such as sight and hearing. However, they were still considered superior to plants because they had tactile and gustatory senses (touch and taste).

Plants, like other living creatures, possessed the ability to grow in size and reproduce. However, they lacked mental attributes and possessed no sensory organs. Instead, their gifts included the ability to eat soil, air, and "heat." (Photosynthesis was a poorly understood phenomenon in medieval and Renaissance times.) Plants did have greater tolerances for heat and cold, and immunity to the pain that afflicts most animals. At the very bottom of the botanical hierarchy, the fungus and moss, lacking leaf and blossom, were so limited in form that Renaissance thinkers thought them scarcely above the level of minerals.


    Trees, with the primate: the oak tree
    "Crops" (corn, wheat, etc.)

Creations of the earth, the lowest of elements, all minerals lacked the plant's basic ability to grow and reproduce. They also lacked mental attributes and sensory organs found in beings higher on the Chain. Their unique gifts, however, were typically their unusual solidity and strength. Many minerals, in fact, were thought to possess magical powers, particularly gems. The Mineral primate is the Diamond.

    Lapidarical Primate: Diamond
        Sapphires, etc.
    Metallic Primate: Gold
        Iron (and steel)
        Copper, etc.
    Geological Primate: Marble
        Limestone, etc.
    Minute Particles (gravel, sand, soil, etc.)



In the second book, he divided human understanding in three parts: history, related to man's faculty of memory; poetry, related to man's faculty of imagination; and philosophy, pertaining to man's faculty of reason. Then he considers the three aspects with which each branch of understanding can relate itself to: divine, human and natural. From the combination of the three branches (history,poetry and philosophy) and three aspects (divine, human and natural) a series of different sciences are deduced.

    He divided History in: divine history, or the History of religion; human or political history; and Natural History.
    Poetry he divided in: narrative (natural/historical) poetry; dramatic (human) poetry, the kind of which "the ancients used to educate the minds of men to virtue"; and divine (parabolic) poetry, in which "the secrets and mysteries of religion, policy, and philosophy are involved in fables or parables".
    Philosophy he divided in: divine, natural and human, which he referred to as the triple character of the power of God, the difference of nature, and the use of man.

Further on, he divided divine philosophy in natural theology (or the lessons of God in Nature) and revealed theology (or the lessons of God in the sacred scriptures), and natural philosophy in physics, metaphysics, mathematics (which included music, astronomy, geography, architecture, engineering), and medicine. For human philosophy, he meant the study of mankind itself, the kind of which leads to self-knowledge, through the study of the mind and the soul – which suggests resemblance with modern psychology.

He also took into consideration rhetoric, communication and transmission of knowledge. " -- is the semantic organization of the :

" The Tree of Diderot and d'Alembert

"Detailed System of Human Knowledge" from the Encyclopédie.

Root node is 'Understanding'. Under that:

(a few more levels of detail may be found at )


"In general, the ABCs of psychology are the study of cognition, affect, and connation, or to put it into words more generally recognized, thinking, feeling, and willing."

"In contradistinction to psychology, pneumatology involves the study of the spirit (German Geist, Greek pneuma). In general, the ABCs of pneumatology are the study of technique (craftsmanship, German Kunst, Greek techne), science (conceptualization of ideas, German Wissenschaft, Greek episteme), poetry (inspiration, German Einatmung, Greek poises), belief (opinion, German Glaube, Greek doxa), and recognition (holding in mind, German Erkenntnis, Greek gnosis)." --

Arthur Mee's ten-volume Children's Encyclopedia:



"The University of Paris in 1231 consisted of four faculties: Theology, Medicine, Canon Law and Arts.[3]" --


types of encyclopedias on the page


    1 General references
    2 Biography
    3 Antiquities, arts, and literature
    4 Culture and country-specific
    5 Pop culture and fiction
    6 Mathematics
    7 Music
    8 Philosophy
    9 Politics and history
    10 Religion and theology
    11 Science
        11.1 Biology-Life science
        11.2 Computer
        11.3 Medicine and surgery

" --

types of encyclopedias on the page

" 1 Archaeology

    1.1 Biblical archaeology
    1.2 Classical archaeology

2 Architecture and architects 3 Area studies

    3.1 Africa
    3.2 Americas
        3.2.1 Central America and the Caribbean
        3.2.2 North America
   United States
       Southern United States
        3.2.3 South America
    3.3 Asia
        3.3.1 Middle East
        3.3.2 Southeast Asia
    3.4 Europe
        3.4.1 British Isles
    3.5 Oceania

4 Art 5 Aviation 6 Biography (general) 7 Books, publishing, and printing 8 Business, information and economics 9 Cuisine 10 Dogs 11 Education

    11.1 Religious education

12 Fashion and clothing 13 Film, radio, television and mass communications 14 General reference

    14.1 Almanacs
    14.2 Compendia
    14.3 Encyclopedias
        14.3.1 Encyclopedias by country/region
   Arab world
   Cape Verde
   Czech Republic
   Russia/Soviet Union
   United States

15 Genealogy

    15.1 Heraldry
    15.2 Orders and decorations

16 Government

    16.1 Executive
        16.1.1 Royalty
    16.2 Law and the judiciary
        16.2.1 American law
   United States Supreme Court
   Women and the law
        16.2.2 Crime and law enforcement
        16.2.3 Legal rights
   Human and civil rights
    16.3 Legislature
    16.4 Politics and political science
        16.4.1 African politics
        16.4.2 American politics
   American diplomacy and foreign policy
   American legislature
   American presidency
        16.4.3 Asian politics
        16.4.4 Latin American politics
        16.4.5 Diplomacy and international relations
        16.4.6 International organizations
        16.4.7 Political ideologies
   Communism, Marxism, Socialism
   Conservatism and Libertarianism

17 History 18 Human sexuality, reproduction, and child care

    18.1 Child care
    18.2 Homosexuality

19 Labour and Industrial Relations 20 Language and linguistics 21 Libraries and information science 22 Literature 23 Maritime and Nautical

    23.1 Nautical dictionaries and encyclopædias

24 Mathematics 25 Meteorological 26 Music and dance

    26.1 Church music
    26.2 Classical music
    26.3 Folk, country and western music
        26.3.1 Country music
    26.4 Musical instruments
    26.5 Opera
    26.6 Popular music
        26.6.1 Jazz
        26.6.2 Rock music
    26.7 Regional music
        26.7.1 American music
        26.7.2 Canadian music
    26.8 Songs
    26.9 Dance
        26.9.1 Ballet
        26.9.2 Kabuki

27 Mythology 28 Parapsychology and the occult

    28.1 Astrology

29 Philology

    29.1 Philologists

30 Philosophy

    30.1 Aesthetics
    30.2 Epistemology
    30.3 Ethics
        30.3.1 Bioethics
        30.3.2 Christian ethics
    30.4 Metaphysics
    30.5 Philosophy of science

31 Religion 32 Science and technology

    32.1 Astronomy
    32.2 Biology
    32.3 Chemistry
        32.3.1 Biochemistry
        32.3.2 Elements
    32.4 Computer and electronic sciences
    32.5 Earth sciences and environment
        32.5.1 Geography
        32.5.2 Materials science
        32.5.3 Minerals and gemstones
    32.6 Engineering and building construction
        32.6.1 Cleaning
        32.6.2 Do-it-yourself
        32.6.3 Metalworking
        32.6.4 Woodworking
    32.7 History of science
    32.8 Philosophy of science
    32.9 Physics
    32.10 Science and religion
    32.11 Technology
        32.11.1 Transportation

33 Social sciences

    33.1 Aging
    33.2 Anthropology and ethnology
        33.2.1 African peoples
        33.2.2 American (U.S.) ethnic and cultural groups
       Japanese Americans
   Latino Americans
        33.2.3 Diasporas
        33.2.4 Indigenous peoples of the Americas
        33.2.5 Jews
    33.3 Economics
    33.4 Gender studies
    33.5 Peace
    33.6 Political science
    33.7 Psychology
        33.7.1 Psychoanalysis
    33.8 Sociology
        33.8.1 Crime and law enforcement
    33.9 Women's studies

34 Speech and rhetoric 35 Sports and games

    35.1 American football
    35.2 Baseball
    35.3 Basketball
    35.4 Boxing
    35.5 Card games
        35.5.1 Bridge
    35.6 Chess
    35.7 Fishing
    35.8 Golf
    35.9 Hockey
    35.10 Magic
    35.11 Running
    35.12 Snooker and billiards
    35.13 Soccer
    35.14 Tennis
    35.15 Wrestling

36 Technology and engineering 37 Warfare

    37.1 Air forces and military aircraft
    37.2 Arms and weaponry
        37.2.1 Arms control and disarmament
    37.3 Battles
    37.4 Espionage and intelligence
        37.4.1 United States espionage and intelligence
    37.5 Navies and military ships
    37.6 Terrorism and political violence
    37.7 United States military history
        37.7.1 American Revolution
        37.7.2 American Civil War
    37.8 Korean War
    37.9 Vietnam War
    37.10 World War I
    37.11 World War II

" --

types of encyclopedias on :

" 1 General knowledge

    1.1 Arabic
    1.2 Chinese
    1.3 Czech
    1.4 Danish
    1.5 English
    1.6 German
    1.7 Italian
    1.8 Latin
    1.9 Persian
    1.10 Polish
    1.11 Russian
    1.12 Slovenian
    1.13 Spanish
    1.14 Swedish
    1.15 Turkish
    1.16 Multiple languages

2 Specialized encyclopedias

    2.1 National, regional, ethnic or cultural
        2.1.1 Australia
        2.1.2 Austria
        2.1.3 Bangladesh
        2.1.4 Canada
        2.1.5 Croatia
        2.1.6 Ethiopia
        2.1.7 Iran
        2.1.8 Italy
        2.1.9 Malaysia
        2.1.10 New Zealand
        2.1.11 Poland
        2.1.12 Slovenia
        2.1.13 Sweden
        2.1.14 United Kingdom
        2.1.15 United States of America
        2.1.16 Yugoslavia
    2.2 Subject
        2.2.1 Art and Architecture
        2.2.2 Entertainment
        2.2.3 Environmental Science
        2.2.4 Fashion and dress
        2.2.5 Fiction
        2.2.6 History and biography
        2.2.7 Law
   International and comparative law
        2.2.8 Literature
        2.2.9 Mathematics
        2.2.10 Medicine
        2.2.11 Music
        2.2.12 Philosophy
        2.2.13 Science
        2.2.14 Religion
        2.2.15 Social sciences
        2.2.16 Sports
        2.2.17 Other

" --

Pliny's Natural History

" The Natural History consists of 37 books. Pliny devised his own table of contents. The table below is a summary based on modern names for topics. Volume Books Contents I 1 Preface and tables of contents, lists of authorities 2 Astronomy, meteorology II 3–6 Geography and ethnography 7 Anthropology and human physiology III 8–11 Zoology, including mammals, snakes, marine animals, birds, insects IV–VII? 12–27 Botany, including agriculture, horticulture, especially of the vine and olive, medicine VIII 28–32 Pharmacology, magic, water, aquatic life IX–X? 33–37 Mining and mineralogy, especially as applied to life and art, work in gold and silver,[13] statuary in bronze,[14] painting,[15] modelling,[16] sculpture in marble,[17] precious stones and gems[18] " --

TOC of , "the most used textbook throughout the middle ages":

(from [29])


contents of the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity , from [30]:


aristitotle's categories, did we already get that?

and of course Kant's


categories from the Columbia Encyclopedia ( or ):


categories from the encarta encyclopedia: